Titanium oxide is a heterogeneous catalyst whose efficient photoinduced activity, related to some of its allotropic forms, paved the way for its widespread technological use. Here, we offer a comparative analysis of the use of titanium oxide as coating for materials in biomedical devices. First, we introduce the photoinduced catalytic mechanisms of TiO2 and their action on biological environment and bacteria. Second, we overview the main physical and chemical technologies for structuring suitable TiO2 coatings on biomedical devices. We then present the approaches for in vitro characterization of these surfaces. Finally, we discuss the main aspects of TiO2 photoactivated antimicrobial activity on medical devices and limitations for these types of applications.