This study examined the success of titanium (Ti) removable partial dentures (RPDs) compared with that of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) RPDs using a randomized controlled clinical trial. Thirty-eight RPD patients were provided with either Co-Cr (20 patients) or Ti (18 patients) RPDs. The total numbers of dentures was 31 (13 maxillary, 18 mandibular) for Co-Cr and 23 (11 maxillary, 12 mandibular) for Ti. Patients were reviewed for 24 months following denture issue. After the initial 12 months, 20 clinical problems were recorded and became the criteria for subsequent assessment. Incidence of failure was analysed using both Fisher's exact test and the chi square test at a significance level of P<0.05. Fracture of retainers in both metals occurred only in the first 12 months. Some failure types presented at significantly higher levels in the first 12 months but there were no significant differences between the two in all the criteria examined between the 12- and the 24-month reviews. Although differences existed in failure types between Co-Cr and Ti RPDs during the early review stages, the overall success rate of Ti RPDs was comparable with that of Co-Cr RPDs after 24 months. The higher incidence of failures in Ti RPDs prior to the 12-month review suggests the importance of taking its lower rigidity into account when designing RPDs.