Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium

@article{MalczewskaToth2012TitaniumZA,
  title={Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium},
  author={Barbara Malczewska‐Toth},
  journal={Patty's Toxicology},
  year={2012},
  pages={427-474}
}
Titanium, zirconium, and hafnium belong to the group IVB of the periodic table. A characteristic feature of these transition elements is the ease with which they form stable complex ions. Features that contribute to this ability are favorably high charge-to-radius ratios and the availability of unfilled d orbitals. The ability of forming metallic bonds is demonstrated by the existence of a wide variety of alloys among different transition metals. Other features of these metals are high… Expand
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