Tissue temperature monitoring with multiple gradient-echo imaging sequences.

@article{Mulkern1998TissueTM,
  title={Tissue temperature monitoring with multiple gradient-echo imaging sequences.},
  author={Robert V. Mulkern and Lawrence P. Panych and Nathan J. McDannold and Ferenc A. Jolesz and Kullervo Hynynen},
  journal={Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI},
  year={1998},
  volume={8 2},
  pages={493-502}
}
The inherent sensitivity of multiple gradient-echo sequences to the chemical shift is exploited to rapidly map muscle water frequency shifts caused by ultrasonic heating. The use of multiple echoes is shown to offer several advantages over single gradient-echo approaches previously proposed for temperature measurement. An increase in the effective bandwidth significantly reduces aliasing problems observed with single gradient-echo methods in high temperature applications. Of greater… CONTINUE READING

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