Tissue-specific nuclear architecture and gene expession regulated by SATB1

  title={Tissue-specific nuclear architecture and gene expession regulated by SATB1},
  author={Shutao Cai and Hye-jung Han and Terumi Kohwi-Shigematsu},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
Eukaryotic chromosomes are packaged in nuclei by many orders of folding. Little is known about how higher-order chromatin packaging might affect gene expression. SATB1 is a cell-type specific nuclear protein that recruits chromatin-remodeling factors and regulates numerous genes during thymocyte differentiation. Here we show that in thymocyte nuclei, SATB1 has a cage-like 'network' distribution circumscribing heterochromatin and selectively tethers specialized DNA sequences onto its network… 
Deeply hidden genome organization directly mediated by SATB1
A modified ChIP-seq protocol is developed that stringently purifies genomic DNA only with its directly-associated proteins and unmasked previously-hidden BURs as direct SATB1 targets genome-wide, revealing TAD-independent chromatin folding mediated by BUR sequences which serve as genome architecture landmarks for direct targeting by cell type-specific gene regulator, SATB 1.
SATB1 packages densely looped, transcriptionally active chromatin for coordinated expression of cytokine genes
RNA interference shows that on cell activation, SATB1 is required not only for compacting chromatin into dense loops at the 200-kb cytokine locus but also for inducing Il4, Il5, Il13 and c-Maf expression.
Nuclear Matrix Binding Regulates SATB1-mediated Transcriptional Repression*
Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) originally was identified as a protein that bound to the nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain intronic enhancer.
Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of SATB1, the higher-order chromatin organizer and global gene regulator.
Methods for overexpression and purification of full length SATB1 protein and for its in vitro phosphorylation are described and a functional assay to monitor the effect of phosphorylated on transcription activity of SATB 1 in vivo is described using MAR-linked reporter assay, in the presence and absence of PKC inhibitors.
A long-range chromatin interaction regulates SATB homeobox 1 gene expression in trophoblast stem cells
These findings indicate that trophoblast-specific Satb1 expression is regulated by long-range chromatin looping of an enhancer that interacts with ELF5 and SATB proteins.
A Nuclear Targeting Determinant for SATB1, a Genome Organizer in the T Cell Lineage
The N-terminus of human SATB1 was found to be essential for the nuclear localization of the protein, and fusing residues 20-40 to a cytoplasmic green fluorescence protein (GFP) fused to pyruvate kinase (PK) was sufficient to quantitatively translocate the pyruVate kinases into the nucleus.
The impact of histone post-translational modifications on developmental gene regulation
This review examines the molecular processes regulating site-specific histone acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation with an emphasis on how these processes underpin differentiation-regulated transcription.
Tetramerization of SATB1 is essential for regulating of gene expression
Whether SATB1’s oligomerization is critical to its function as a global repressor of gene expression in vivo is illustrated to illustrate.


SATB1 targets chromatin remodelling to regulate genes over long distances
It is shown that SATB1 targets chromatin remodelling to the IL-2Rα (‘interleukin-2 receptor α’) gene, which is ectopically transcribed in SATB 1 null thymocytes, and defines a class of transcriptional regulators that function as a ‘landing platform’ for several chromatin rebuilding enzymes and hence regulate large chromatin domains.
The matrix attachment region-binding protein SATB1 participates in negative regulation of tissue-specific gene expression
It is shown here that NBP binds to a 22-bp sequence containing an imperfect inverted repeat in the promoter-proximal NRE, which demonstrates the role of MAR-binding proteins in tissue-specific gene regulation and in MMTV-induced oncogenesis.
The MAR-binding protein SATB1 orchestrates temporal and spatial expression of multiple genes during T-cell development.
SATB1 appears to orchestrate the temporal and spatial expression of genes during T-cell development, thereby ensuring the proper development of this lineage and providing the first evidence that MAR-binding proteins can act as global regulators of cell function in specific cell lineages.
A thymocyte factor SATB1 suppresses transcription of stably integrated matrix-attachment region-linked reporter genes.
SATB1 dramatically reduces the high levels of MAR-linked luciferase gene transcription and acts as a strong transcriptional suppressor on a reporter gene linked to MARs when it is stably integrated into chromatin.
Histone acetyltransferases.
This review discusses the current understanding of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) or acetyltransferases (ATs): their discovery, substrate specificity, catalytic mechanism, regulation, and functional links to transcription, as well as to other chromatin-modifying activities.
Rb targets histone H3 methylation and HP1 to promoters
It is shown that SUV39H1 and HP1 are both involved in the repressive functions of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, and Chromatin immunoprecipitations show that Rb is necessary to direct methylation of histone H3, and is necessary for binding of HP1 to the cyclin E promoter.
Transitions in histone acetylation reveal boundaries of three separately regulated neighboring loci
There is a very strong constitutive focus of hyperacetylation at the 5′ insulator element separating the globin locus from the folate receptor region, which suggests that this insulators element may harbor a high concentration of histone acetylases.
SATB1 Cleavage by Caspase 6 Disrupts PDZ Domain-Mediated Dimerization, Causing Detachment from Chromatin Early in T-Cell Apoptosis
The results suggest that mechanisms of nuclear degradation early in apoptotic T cells involve efficient removal of SATB1 by disrupting its dimerization and cleavage of genomic DNA into loop domains to ensure rapid and efficient disassembly of higher-order chromatin structure.
p300/CBP proteins: HATs for transcriptional bridges and scaffolds.
p300/CBP transcriptional co-activator proteins play a central role in co-ordinating and integrating multiple signal-dependent events with the transcription apparatus, allowing the appropriate level