Tissue kallikrein in the rat pineal gland was immunocytochemically investigated with the aid of specific antiserum against rat urinary kallikrein. We also compared the tissue kallikrein immunoreactivity of the pineal gland with that of the submandibular gland and kidney, which have been well established as tissue kallikrein-synthesizing organs. The cytoplasm of pinealocytes from both the superficial and the deep portion of the gland exhibited specific immunolabeling for tissue kallikrein, but the immunoreaction was weaker than that observed in exocrine organs. Two types of tissue kallikrein-immunoreactive pinealocytes were distinguished; the first predominant type displayed moderate immunostaining, whereas a small number of cells, the second type, were so intensely labeled that their cytoplasmic processes were clearly outlined. The results of the present study suggest the existence of different types of pinealocytes and a potential physiological role of tissue kallikrein in the rat pineal gland.