The structure and function of peripheral nerves can be affected by a range of conditions with severe consequences in these patients. Currently, there are several surgical techniques available to treat peripheral nerve defects. Direct repair is the preferred treatment for short nerve gaps, and nerve autografting is the gold standard in critical nerve defects. The autografting is not always available, and the use of allograft, decellularized allograft and nerve conduits are often used with variable success. During the recent years, several outcomes were achieved in peripheral nerve tissue engineering. Promising experimental results have been demonstrated with this novel generation of nerve conduits, mainly composed by biodegradables materials in combination with intraluminal fillers, growth factors and different cell sources.