Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band

@article{Edwards1994TissueAB,
  title={Tissue ablation by a free-electron laser tuned to the amide II band},
  author={Glenn S. Edwards and Regan Logan and Michael Copeland and Lou Reinisch and J. L. Davidson and Bruce Johnson and Robert J. Maciunas and Marcus H. Mendenhall and Robert H. Ossoff and Jerri A. Tribble and Jay A. Werkhaven and Denis M. O'day},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1994},
  volume={371},
  pages={416-419}
}
EFFORTS to ablate soft tissue with conventional lasers have been limited by collateral damage and by concern over potential photochemical effects1–5. Motivated by the thermal-confinement model6, past infrared investigations targeted the OH-stretch mode of water with fast pulses from lasers emitting near 3,000 nm (refs 1, 7–9). What does a free-electron laser offer for the investigation of tissue ablation? Operating at non-photochemical single-photon energies, these infrared sources can produce… 

Free electron laser ablation of soft tissue : the effects of chromophore and pulse characteristics on ablation mechanics.

TLDR
It appears that over a very broad range of midinfrared wavelengths, the results of soft tissue ablation with the FEL are well described by a steady-state ablation model that incorporates the effect of plume screening, and the fundamental mechanism appears to be a water absorption dominated process.

Analysis of infrared laser tissue ablation

The mechanisms involved in infrared laser tissue ablation are studied using a free electron laser (FELIX) in order to clarify whether the increased ablation efficiency reported in literature for

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There are significant benefits to medical laser surgeries performed with mid-infrared wavelengths, including the ability to select laser parameters in order to minimize photochemical and thermal

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Despite the widespread use of pulsed lasers in biomedical applications, the physicochemical mechanisms and dynamics of ablation processes remain unclear. The role of chromophore on pulsed infrared

Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL)

TLDR
This research compared a Mark‐III FEL and an Er:YAG pumped ZGP‐OPO with respect to the effect of pulse duration on ablation efficiency and thermal damage on porcine cornea.

The effect of free-electron laser pulse structure on mid-infrared soft-tissue ablation: ablation metrics

TLDR
There is a small effect of micropulse duration of the FEL on the ablation process; however, this effect is negligible between 1 and 200 ps given that there is a 200-fold decrease in peak intensity.

Laser selective cutting of biological tissues by impulsive heat deposition through ultrafast vibrational excitations.

TLDR
Highly efficient ablation of healthy tooth enamel using 55 ps infrared laser pulses tuned to the vibrational transition of interstitial water and hydroxyapatite is demonstrated, attributed to an enhanced photomechanical effect due to ultrafast vibrational relaxation into heat and the scattering of powerful ultrafast acoustic transients with random phases off the mesoscopic heterogeneous tissue structures.

Analysis of soft tissue ablation using the pulse stretched free electron laser

TLDR
In this study, the native pulse structure of the FEL, a 2.85 gigahertz repetition of picosecond pulses within a five microsecond macropulse envelope, was changed using a pulse stretcher to reduce the peak intensity of the micropulse down to 1/200th of the original intensity, while the macrop Pulse energy remains unchanged.

The effect of free-electron laser pulse structure on mid-infrared soft-tissue ablation: biological effects

TLDR
This study focuses on the ablation mechanism at 6.1 and 6.45 microm with an emphasis on the role of the FEL pulse structure and whether amide bond breakage could occur in the proteins present in tissue as a result of direct absorption of mid-infrared light into the amide I and amide II absorption bands.

Raman-shifted alexandrite laser for soft tissue ablation in the 6- to 7-µm wavelength range

TLDR
Initial results are presented with a Raman-shifted, pulsed alexandrite laser that is tunable from 6 to 7 µm and cuts soft tissues cleanly and does so with volumetric ablation rates of 2–5 × 10−3 mm3/s, comparable to those attained in prior successful surgical trials using the FEL.
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