Tissue Engineering at the Micro-Scale

  title={Tissue Engineering at the Micro-Scale},
  author={Sangeeta N. Bhatia and Christopher S. Chen},
  journal={Biomedical Microdevices},
The possibility to replace damaged or diseased organs with artificial tissues engineered from a combination of living cells and biocompatible scaffolds is becoming a reality through multi-disciplinary efforts. A number of critical components within this effort are being facilitated by microfabrication and MEMS approaches, including research tools to elucidate mechanisms which control cellular behavior as well as development of methods to manufacture cellular scaffolds at ever higher resolutions… 
Fabrication of three-dimensional tissues.
This chapter reviews three-dimensional fabrication techniques for tissue engineering, including: acellular scaffolds, cellular assembly, and hybrid scaffold/cell constructs.
Microscale technologies for tissue engineering and biology.
An overview of the use of microfluidics, surface patterning, and patterned cocultures in regulating various aspects of cellular microenvironment is discussed, as well as the application of these technologies in directing cell fate and elucidating the underlying biology.
Microfabrication of three-dimensional engineered scaffolds.
A brief overview of the fundamental microfabrication technologies used for tissue engineering will be presented, along with a summary of progress in a number of applications, including the liver and kidney.
Computer Aided Tissue Engineering from Modeling to Manufacturing
Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies the principles and methods of bioengineering, material science, and life sciences toward the assembly of biologic substitutes that will restore, maintain, and improve tissue functions following damage either by disease or traumatic processes.
Micro- and Nanoscale Control of Cellular Environment for Tissue Engineering
This chapter analyzes the use of microand nanoscale engineering techniques for controlling and studying cell–cell, cell–substrate and cell–soluble factor interactions, as well as for fabricating organs with controlled architecture and resolution.
Combined technologies for microfabricating elastomeric cardiac tissue engineering scaffolds.
This work combined micromolding and microablation technologies to create muscle tissue engineering scaffolds from the biodegradable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate), which exhibited well defined surface patterns and pores and robust elastomersic tensile mechanical properties.
A Review of Three-Dimensional Printing in Tissue Engineering.
An overview of current 3D printing techniques used in tissue engineering is provided with an emphasis on the printing mechanism and the resultant scaffold characteristics.
Biomimetic Design of Artificial Micro-vasculatures for Tissue Engineering
An overview of microfluidic tissue constructs is provided, and the hydrodynamic scaling laws that underpin the fluid mechanics of vascular systems are reviewed, and it is shown that it is possible to introduce precise control over the shear stress or residence time in a hierarchical network, in order to aid cell adhesion and enhance the diffusion of nutrients and waste products.
Design and Development of Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
There is an emerging scaffold fabricating technique using solid free form fabrication (SFF) that has shown to be highly effective in integrating structural architecture with changes in surface chemistry of the scaffolds, and integration of growth factors.


Functional arteries grown in vitro.
A tissue engineering approach was developed to produce arbitrary lengths of vascular graft material from smooth muscle and endothelial cells that were derived from a biopsy of vascular tissue, with patency documented up to 24 days by digital angiography.
Cellular Micropatterns on Biocompatible Materials
Micropatterns of collagen or fibronectin were used to selectively adhere cells on various biomedical polymers and on heterogeneous or microtextured substrates to provide inexpensive patterning of a rich assortment of biomolecules, cells, and surfaces under physiological conditions.
Electrical, chemical, and topological addressing of mammalian cells with microfabricated systems.
The surface physico-chemico-mechano properties of cell culture substrates that play a role in modulating cellular behavior are addressed and single factorial model systems have been built using techniques adapted from microlithography.
Polymer concepts in tissue engineering.
Polymer concepts regarding bone tissue engineering are discussed and recent advances of the laboratory on guided bone regeneration using biodegradable polymer scaffolds are reviewed.
Spatially controlled cell engineering on biodegradable polymer surfaces
  • N. PatelR. Padera K. Shakesheff
  • Biology, Engineering
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1998
A method of generating micron‐scale patterns of any biotinylated ligand on the surface of a biodegradable block copolymer, polylactide‐poly(ethylene glycol) achieves control of biomolecule deposition with nanometer precision.
Wound tissue can utilize a polymeric template to synthesize a functional extension of skin.
A functional extension of skin over the entire wound area is formed in about 4 weeks and no immunosuppression is used and infection, exudation, and rejection are absent.
A tissue-like culture system using microstructures: influence of extracellular matrix material on cell adhesion and aggregation.
The described tissue culture system offers great flexibility in adapting the cell support to specific needs, especially when gradients of specific substances over distinct tissue layers must be established for long-term culture.
Controlling cell interactions by micropatterning in co-cultures: hepatocytes and 3T3 fibroblasts.
This co-culture technique allowed manipulation of the initial cellular microenvironment without variation of cell number and was able to control the level of homotypic interaction in cultures of a single cell type and the degree of heterotypic contact in co-cultures over a wide range.
The effects of the surface topography of micromachined titanium substrata on cell behavior in vitro and in vivo.
Detailed comparisons of cell behavior on micromachined substrata in vitro and in vivo are difficult because of the number of factors, such as population density and micromotion, that can differ between these conditions.