Tip-of-the-Tongue States and Aging: Contrasting Psycholinguistic and Metacognitive Perspectives

  title={Tip-of-the-Tongue States and Aging: Contrasting Psycholinguistic and Metacognitive Perspectives},
  author={Bennett L. Schwartz and Leslie D. Frazier},
  journal={The Journal of General Psychology},
  pages={377 - 391}
A tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) refers to the experience of feeling certain that one knows a word, but being unable to retrieve it. A consistent finding in the literature is that TOTs are more frequent in older adults than in younger adults. We describe 2 hypotheses that account for this finding. The decrement view explains the increase in TOTs with age as a function of deteriorating connections between semantic and lexical nodes. The incremental-knowledge view accounts for the effect in terms… Expand
Metamemory is defined as the knowledge about one’s memory capabilities and about strategies that can aid memory (Shimamura, 1994). One particularly intriguing type of metamemory judgment is aExpand
Tip-of-the-tongue states as metacognition
The tip-of-the-tongue state (henceforth, TOT) is typically defined as the feeling that a known word will be recalled even though it is not accessible immediately. Others have defined TOTs as simplyExpand
Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states: retrieval, behavior, and experience
This work presents a synthesis of the direct-access view, which accounts for retrieval failure, and the heuristic–metacognitive view,Which accounts for the experience of the TOT. Expand
Are tip-of-the-tongue states universal? Evidence from the speakers of an unwritten language
This paper examines the claim that tip-of-the-tongue states are universal for illiterates, unschooled literates, and schooled readers, all speakers of an unwritten Guatemalan language, and draws a possible link between TOTs and epistemic curiosity. Expand
Between Thought and Expression, a Magnetoencephalography Study of the “Tip-of-the-Tongue” Phenomenon
The main findings supported the components of Levelt's model of speech output, but not their serial activation over time as both semantic and motor areas were identified in both analyses. Expand
Working memory load differentially affects tip-of-the-tongue states and feeling-of-knowing judgments
In each of the first three experiments, positive metacognitive judgments also affected working memory performance, supporting the idea that working memory and metamemory use similar monitoring processes. Expand
2.22 – Tip of the Tongue Experience
The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experience is a temporary inability to recall a word when you are certain that you know it. Research on TOTs, using both diary and laboratory procedures, has shown thatExpand
Metacognitive Performance, the Tip-of-Tongue Experience, Is Not Disrupted in Parkinsonian Patients
It is demonstrated that TOT metamemory is not compromised in PD patients, and that further insight into TOT mechanisms in PD may prove helpful in developing novel intervention strategies to enhance memory and general cognitive functions in these patients. Expand
Linguistic Phenomena in Men and Women - TOT, FOK, Verbal Fluency
The aim of this study is to describe the differences between women and men in the phenomena of feeling of knowing/know (FOK), tip of the tongue (TOT), and verbal fluency. Two studies are presented.Expand
Syntactic and lexical context of pauses and hesitations in the discourse of Alzheimer patients and healthy elderly subjects
Overall patients show more lexical retrieval and planning difficulties, but where controls signal their planning difficulties using filled pauses, AD patients do not. Expand


Sparkling at the end of the tongue: The etiology of tip-of-the-tongue phenomenology
The tip-of-the-tongue experience (TOT) is the phenomenological experience that a currently inaccessible word is stored in memory and will be retrieved. TOTs appear to be a universal experience thatExpand
The relation of tip-of-the-tongue states and retrieval time
The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) is the phenomenological experience that a word is on the verge of being recalled, andValence of emotion was correlated with correct resolution of the TOT. Expand
On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults?
Abstract This paper develops a new theory of the tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon. Within this interactive activation model of speech production, TOTs occur when the connections between lexical andExpand
Priming the Tip of the Tongue: Effects of Prior Processing on Word Retrieval in Young and Older Adults
Abstract We test the prediction that recent processing of a word will decrease the probability of a tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) to a general knowledge question and that semantic processing will beExpand
Illusory tip-of-the-tongue states.
The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) is the phenomenological experience that a target word is on the verge of being recalled, but the actual target is either unavailable, forgotten, or never learned. Expand
A review of the tip-of-the-tongue experience.
  • A. S. Brown
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological bulletin
  • 1991
A more precise definition of the TOT experience is needed, as well as greater uniformity in the information gathered during TOTs. Expand
The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states
The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) is the phenomenological experience that a word is on the verge of being recalled, and imminence was defined as the feeling that retrieval is about to occur, which was more likely to be followed by resolution and recognition than were nonimminent TOTs. Expand
Chapter Five Cognition and Aging: A Theory of New Learning and the Use of Old Connections
Summary This chapter describes a detailed theory of perception, production and memory for language and applies it to the problem of cognitive decline in old age. Altering a single parameter in theExpand
Do alternative names block young and older adults’ retrieval of proper names?
There were no age differences in knowledge of films and TV and thus the age-related increase in TOTs is not because older adults have more relevant knowledge, and the findings are compatible with models in which alternate words are a consequence not a cause of TOT. Expand
Does priming specific syllables during tip-of-the-tongue states facilitate word retrieval in older adults?
This experiment investigated whether phonological priming of syllables helps resolve tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states in young and older adults. Young, young-old, and old-old adults read generalExpand