Time to recurrence after recovery from major depressive episodes and its predictors

  title={Time to recurrence after recovery from major depressive episodes and its predictors},
  author={Takahiro Kanai and Hiroshi Takeuchi and Toshiaki Furukawa and R Yoshimura and Toshiaki Imaizumi and Toshinori Kitamura and K. Takahashi},
  journal={Psychological Medicine},
  pages={839 - 845}
Background. Depression is a remitting but recurring disease. However, there is a paucity of prospectively recorded data on the course of depression after recovery. Method. A multi-centre prospective serial follow-up study of an inception cohort of hitherto untreated unipolar major depression (N=95) for 6 years. We report the time to recurrence after recovery from the index depressive episode and their predictors. Results. The cumulative probability of remaining well without subthreshold… 
Recurrence of major depressive disorder: towards a model of risk
Number of previous episodes and subclinical residual symptoms appear to be the most important predictors of recurrence in the general population and primary care on the recurrent course of major depressive disorder.
Rates and predictors of remission, recurrence and conversion to bipolar disorder after the first lifetime episode of depression – a prospective 5-year follow-up study
The identified clinical characteristics of the first lifetime episode of depression should guide patients and clinicians for long-term individualized tailored treatment.
Long term outcome of primary care depression.
Long-term course of severe depression: late remission and recurrence may be found in a follow-up after 38–53 years
Hredity for depression was significantly related to a chronic course with or without late remission, and perceived parental rearing behaviour, and treatment of index depressive episode were related to background variables.
Prediction of remission in pharmacotherapy of untreated major depression: development and validation of multivariable prediction models
Patients and clinicians can use these prediction models to estimate their predicted probability of achieving remission after acute antidepressant therapy, and the external validity of the derived prediction models with the second half of the cohort is examined.
Residual symptoms after remission of major depressive disorder with citalopram and risk of relapse: a STAR*D report
Patients with remission of MDD after treatment with citalopram continue to experience selected residual depressive symptoms, which increase the risk of relapse.
Clinical differences between early and late remission in depressive patients.
Is prior course of illness relevant to acute or longer-term outcomes in depressed out-patients? A STAR*D report
Recurrent MDD is the norm for out-patients, of whom 15% also have a chronic index episode and chronic and recurrent course may be useful in predicting acute and long-term MDD treatment outcomes.


Time to recovery of an inception cohort with hitherto untreated unipolar major depressive episodes.
The authors' estimate of the episode length was 25-50% shorter than estimates reported in the literature, and the median time to recovery of the index episode after treatment commencement was 3 months.
Remission and recurrence of depression in the maintenance era: long-term outcome in a Cambridge cohort
The long-term outcome of depression still shows high recurrence rates and does not appear to have changed in the last 20 years, and greater severity of illness was the most consistent predictor of poor outcome.
Pattern of recurrence of illness after recovery from an episode of major depression: a prospective study.
Major depression has a high rate of recurrence, even when bipolar and psychotic cases are excluded, and the highest rate is observed during the first months after recovery from an episode.
Recurrence after recovery from major depressive disorder during 15 years of observational follow-up.
Female sex, a longer depressive episode before intake, more prior episodes, and never marrying were significant predictors of a recurrence of an affective disorder, but naturalistically applied levels of antidepressant treatment are well below those shown effective in maintenance pharmacotherapy studies.
Future Imperfect: the Long-Term Outcome of Depression
Results are presented concerning the prediction of long-term outcome as represented by the Depression Outcome Scale (DOS), a measure specially constructed for this study.
Multiple recurrences of major depressive disorder.
The number of lifetime episodes of major depression was significantly associated with the probability of recurrence, such that the risk of Recurrence increased by 16% with each successive recurrence and progressively decreased as the duration of recovery increased.
Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in depressive disorders: a systematic review
Treatment received by depressed patients.
It is concluded that more research is needed to determine how patients and practitioners contribute to this phenomenon of low intensity of somatic treatment.
The functioning and well-being of depressed patients. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study.
Depressed patients tended to have worse physical, social, and role functioning, worse perceived current health, and greater bodily pain than did patients with no chronic conditions.
Symptomatic recovery and social functioning in major depression
To determine whether social functional recovery precedes, runs in parallel with, or lags behind symptomatic recovery from major depressive episodes, a study of patients with and without major depressive disorder is conducted.