Time series modeling of heroin and morphine drug action

  title={Time series modeling of heroin and morphine drug action},
  author={Wolfgang Tschacher and R. Haemmig and Nina Jacobshagen},
Abstract Rationale. Clinical observations and recent findings suggested different acceptance of morphine and heroin by intravenous drug users in opiate maintenance programs. We postulated that this is caused by differences in the perceived effects of these drugs, especially how desired and adverse effects of both drugs interacted. Objectives. We measured the desired and adverse effects of high doses of injected morphine and heroin in patients to determine the causal interactions between both… Expand
Vaccines against morphine/heroine and its use as effective medication for preventing relapse to opiate addictive behaviors
This review summarizes the literature examining important aspects of neurobiological and pharmacological processes involved in opiate dependence and relevant preclinical studies are examined for comparisons in the design, use, immunogenic profile and efficacy of several models of morphine/heroin vaccine as immunologic interventions on the pharmacokinetics and behavioral of morphine /heroin in the rat as animal model. Expand
Cerebral blood flow effects of acute intravenous heroin administration
Compared to the euphoria condition, rush was associated with blood flow increase in the left posterior cerebellar lobe, left anterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus, indicating that the cerebellum is an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, modulation of affect, motivation and social behaviour, which all play important roles in reinforcing properties of opioids. Expand
High levels of morphine-6-glucuronide in street heroin addicts
Chronic exposure to street heroin causes a relative increase in concentrations of the active metabolite, M6G, which may prolong the narrow window of heroin effects in intravenous heroin abusers. Expand
Repeated Exposures to Heroin and/or Cadmium Alter the Rate of Formation of Morphine Glucuronides in the Rat
Repeated exposure of rats to heroin can shift morphine glucuronidation toward the formation of the active metabolite M6G, a potent opioid agonist. Expand
Neurobehavioral Toxicology of Substances of Abuse
The authors discuss drugs within each of the major classes of abused substances from the perspectives of the history of each drug’s use as well as chemical properties, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics of distribution-metabolism-elimination, and the toxicology of these drugs. Expand
Pattern of regional cerebral blood-flow changes induced by acute heroin administration--a perfusion MRI study.
Perfusion MRI demonstrated differences in brain hemodynamics induced by drug intake, as assessed by perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI) in a double-blind and placebo-controlled setting. Expand
Modulatory Effect of Environmental Context and Drug History on Heroin-Induced Psychomotor Activity and Fos Protein Expression in the Rat Brain
The present report demonstrates that environment and drug history powerfully interact in shaping the neurobehavioral response to heroin, as previously shown for amphetamine and cocaine. Expand
Reduction in Cerebral Perfusion after Heroin Administration: A Resting State Arterial Spin Labeling Study
Compared to placebo, heroin was associated with reduced perfusion in the left anterior cingulate cortex, the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the insula (both hemispheres), which may indicate self- and emotional regulation effects of heroin in maintenance treatment. Expand
Genetic variation in heroin‐induced changes in behaviour: effects of B6 strain dose on conditioned reward and locomotor sensitization in 129‐B6 hybrid mice
The present study examined heroin‐induced place conditioning and locomotor sensitization in the two strains of mice employed most frequently in the generation of transgenic animals, C57BL/6J (B6) and 129X1/sVJ (129), as well as in groups of B6‐129 hybrid mice, differing in their amount of B 6 genetic background. Expand
Prenatal exposure to heroin in mice elicits memory deficits that can be attributed to neuronal apoptosis
It is suggested that prenatal heroin exposure during the E9-18 period enhances neuronal apoptosis by altering the expressions of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax in the mouse hippocampus, and leads to impairment in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Expand


Effects of High-Dose Heroin versus Morphine in Intravenous Drug Users: A Randomised Double-Blind Crossover Study
It is concluded that as heroin produces fewer side effects it is the preferred highdose maintenance prescription to morphine, and the perceived euphoric effects are limited in both substances. Expand
Drug-induced mood changes in man. I. Observations on healthy subjects, chronically ill patients, and postaddicts.
It is found that a combination of self-scoring questionnaires and interrogation is most successful in eliciting subjective responses from young, intelligent, healthy male volunteer subjects with morphine, heroin, and amphetamine. Expand
Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of injectable heroin prescription for refractory opioid addicts: a follow-up study
Heroin-assisted substitution treatment might be an effective option for chronically addicted patients for whom other treatments have failed and showed positive effects with respect to health and social outcomes. Expand
Affective changes in chronic opiate use.
The early effect of the heroin was to produce a decrease in somatic concern, anxiety and depression, but continuing use of the opiate produced significant increases in these variables and also an increase in social isolation and retardation. Expand
Psychopathology and Mood During Heroin Use
In the previous chapter operant data relative to work output and the frequency of heroin self-administration were discussed from the perspective of learning theory. Data were presented supporting theExpand
Prescriptions of Narcotics for Heroin Addicts: Main Results of the Swiss National Cohort Study
A review of a programme studying the prescription of narcotics for heroin addicts. Issues addressed include toxicology side effects, characteristics of patients, changes in criminal behaviour, andExpand
Analysis of crisis intervention processes.
Crisis intervention should focus on having patients increasingly engage in outward cognitive orientation in order to stabilize mood, reduce anxiety, and activate their resources. Expand
Prescription of narcotics for heroin addicts: main results of the Swiss National Cohort Study
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