Time-reversal symmetry and covariant Lyapunov vectors for simple particle models in and out of thermal equilibrium.

@article{Bosetti2010TimereversalSA,
  title={Time-reversal symmetry and covariant Lyapunov vectors for simple particle models in and out of thermal equilibrium.},
  author={Hadrien Bosetti and Harald A. Posch and Christoph Dellago and William Graham Hoover},
  journal={Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics},
  year={2010},
  volume={82 4 Pt 2},
  pages={
          046218
        }
}
Recently, a new algorithm for the computation of covariant Lyapunov vectors and of corresponding local Lyapunov exponents has become available. Here we study the properties of these still unfamiliar quantities for a simple model representing a harmonic oscillator coupled to a thermal gradient with a two-stage thermostat, which leaves the system ergodic and fully time reversible. We explicitly demonstrate how time-reversal invariance affects the perturbation vectors in tangent space and the… 
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