# Time-reversal symmetry and covariant Lyapunov vectors for simple particle models in and out of thermal equilibrium.

@article{Bosetti2010TimereversalSA, title={Time-reversal symmetry and covariant Lyapunov vectors for simple particle models in and out of thermal equilibrium.}, author={Hadrien Bosetti and Harald A. Posch and Christoph Dellago and William Graham Hoover}, journal={Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics}, year={2010}, volume={82 4 Pt 2}, pages={ 046218 } }

Recently, a new algorithm for the computation of covariant Lyapunov vectors and of corresponding local Lyapunov exponents has become available. Here we study the properties of these still unfamiliar quantities for a simple model representing a harmonic oscillator coupled to a thermal gradient with a two-stage thermostat, which leaves the system ergodic and fully time reversible. We explicitly demonstrate how time-reversal invariance affects the perturbation vectors in tangent space and the…

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