Time required for Judgements of Numerical Inequality

  title={Time required for Judgements of Numerical Inequality},
  author={Robert S. Moyer and Thomas K. Landauer},
AN educated adult can tell which of two digits is the larger with virtually no uncertainty. By what process is this accomplished ? On the one hand, it is conceivable that such judgements are made in the same way as judgements of stimuli varying along physical continua. On the other hand, numerical judgements may be made at a different, less perceptual and more cognitive, level. For instance, the task may be one of memory access, each possible pair of numerals being stored with a corresponding… 
Processing Numerical Information; a Choice Time Analysis 1
The time needed for human adults to identify the numerically larger of two digits was studied. In Exp. I, the digits to be compared were presented in succession at two different exposure durations.
Mental Mechanisms in Performing Elementary Numerical Operations
21 college students served as Ss in an experiment concerned with speed of adding simple numbers. The results partially confirmed the hypothesis of Groen (1967) and Restle (1970) of a mental analog
Encoding of Numerical Information in Memory: Magnitude or Nominal?
The data suggested an alternative hypothesis that each digit of a number is encoded separately in long-term memory, and that encoding of one or more digits sometimes fails due to insufficient attention in which case they are simply guessed when recall is requested, with no regard for the presented value.
A probabilistic model for the discrimination of visual number
A probabilistic model of how humans identify the number of dots within a briefly presented visual display is proposed, and it was concluded that the classical span of subitizing numerosity is but a special case of the span of discrimination.
Categorizing digits and the mental number line
The present study investigated a categorization paradigm in which participants decided if a number presented falls into a numerically defined central category, and shows that number categorization yields a highly regular, yet considerably more complex pattern of decision times and error rates as compared to the simple monotone relations obtained in traditional selection and classification tasks.
Attention, automaticity, and levels of representation in number processing
Participants performed same-different judgments for pairs of numerals in 2 conditions: numerical matching (responding "same" to pairs such as 2-TWO), or physical matching (responding "different" to
Representation and retrieval of two-digit numbers in mental comparison
Subjects were asked to judge whether two-digit numbers randomly selected from 11 to 39 were smaller or larger than a standard number of 25, and also whether two-digit numbers from 61 to 89 were
Comparing three numbers: The effect of number of digits, range, and leading zeros
The literature is abundant with results on the cognitive processes involved in determining the larger of two numbers. In the present experiment, range, number of digits, and leading zeros were varied


This paper sketches the historical development of the work in this area and attempts a reappraisal under five main heads: there appears to be in the central mechanisms a ‘ single channel ’ which deals with signals or groups of signals one at a time so that signals coming in rapid succession may have to ‘ queue ’ before they are dealt with.