Time crystals in periodically driven systems

  title={Time crystals in periodically driven systems},
  author={Norman Y. Yao and C. Nayak},
  journal={Physics Today},
When the discrete time-translation symmetry of isolated, periodically driven systems is spontaneously broken, a new phase of matter can emerge. 

Figures from this paper

An inexpensive crystal makes a fine quantum time machine
To understand the intricacies of thermodynamics in the quantum regime, it helps to be able to turn back the clock.
Classical discrete time crystals
The spontaneous breaking of time-translation symmetry in periodically driven quantum systems leads to a new phase of matter: the discrete time crystal (DTC). This phase exhibits collective
Emergent limit cycles and time crystal dynamics in an atom-cavity system
We propose an experimental realization of a time crystal using an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a high finesse optical cavity pumped with laser light detuned to the blue side of the relevant
Classical Many-Body Time Crystals.
This work provides a simple and pedagogical framework by which to obtain many-body time crystals using parametrically coupled resonators and presents a clear distinction between single-mode time-translation symmetry breaking and a situation where an extensive number of degrees of freedom undergo the transition.
Supplemental Material for Classical many-body time crystals
Discrete time crystals are a many-body state of matter where the extensive system’s dynamics are slower than the forces acting on it. Nowadays, there is a growing debate regarding the specific
The role of fluctuations in quantum and classical time crystals
Discrete time crystals (DTCs) are a many-body state of matter whose dynamics are slower than the forces acting on it. The same is true for classical systems with period-doubling bifurcations. Hence,
Time crystal dynamics in a weakly modulated stochastic time delayed system
Time crystal oscillations in interacting, periodically driven many-particle systems are highly regular oscillations that persist for long periods of time, are robust to perturbations, and whose
Response of a quantum disordered spin system to a local periodic drive
We consider a one dimensional spin chain system with quenched disorder and in the presence of a local periodic drive. We study the time evolution of the system in the Floquet basis and evaluate the
Persistent Coherent Beating in Coupled Parametric Oscillators.
A new dynamical regime is demonstrated within the simplest network-two coupled parametric oscillators, where the oscillators never reach a steady state, but show persistent, full-scale, coherent beats, whose frequency reflects the coupling properties and strength.
Signatures of discrete time-crystallinity in transport through quantum dot arrays
Discrete time-crystals are periodically driven quantum many-body systems with broken discretetime translational symmetry. Measurements of time-crystallinity are currently limited to optical


Floquet Time Crystals.
This work defines what it means for time translation symmetry to be spontaneously broken in a quantum system and shows that this occurs in a large class of many-body localized driven systems with discrete time-translation symmetry.
Phase Structure of Driven Quantum Systems.
It is shown that their disordered Floquet many-body localized counterparts can exhibit distinct ordered phases delineated by sharp transitions, and these are analogs of equilibrium states with broken symmetries and topological order.
Quantum time crystals.
Some subtleties and apparent difficulties associated with the notion of spontaneous breaking of time-translation symmetry in quantum mechanics are identified and resolved. A model exhibiting that
Impossibility of spontaneously rotating time crystals: a no-go theorem.
  • P. Bruno
  • Physics
    Physical review letters
  • 2013
A "no-go theorem" is proved, rigorously ruling out the possibility of spontaneous ground-state rotation for a broad class of systems.
Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations.
A simple model for a one-dimensional discrete time crystal which explicitly reveals the rigidity of the emergent oscillations as the drive is varied is considered and a blueprint based upon a one dimensional chain of trapped ions is proposed.
Long-time behavior of periodically driven isolated interacting lattice systems
We study the dynamics of isolated interacting spin chains that are periodically driven by sudden quenches. Using full exact diagonalization of finite chains, we show that these systems exhibit three
Observation of a discrete time crystal
The experimental observation of a discrete time crystal, in an interacting spin chain of trapped atomic ions, is presented, which opens the door to the study of systems with long-range spatio-temporal correlations and novel phases of matter that emerge under intrinsically non-equilibrium conditions.
Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system
This work observes long-lived temporal correlations, experimentally identifies the phase boundary and finds that the temporal order is protected by strong interactions, which opens the door to exploring dynamical phases of matter and controlling interacting, disordered many-body systems.
Absence of Quantum Time Crystals.
A no-go theorem is proved that rules out the possibility of time crystals defined as such, in the ground state or in the canonical ensemble of a general Hamiltonian, which consists of not-too-long-range interactions.