The current study evaluated both the time course of insulin resistance associated with feeding dogs a high-fat diet and the relationship between the development of insulin resistance and the increase in blood pressure that also occurs. Twelve adult mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented and randomly assigned to either a control diet group (n = 4) or a high-fat diet group (n = 8). Insulin resistance was assessed by a weekly, single-dose (2 mU.kg-1.min-1) euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp on all dogs. Feeding dogs a high-fat diet was associated with a 3.7 +/- 0.5 kg increase in body weight, a 20 +/- 4 mmHg increase in mean blood pressure, a reduction in insulin-mediated glucose uptake [(in mumol-kg-1.min-1) decreasing from 72 +/- 6 before to 49 +/- 7 at 1 wk, 29 +/- 3 at 3 wk, and 30 +/- 2 at 6 wk of the high-fat diet, P < 0.01]. and a reduced insulin-mediated increase in cardiac output. In eight dogs (4 high fat and 4 control), the dose-response relationship of insulin-induced glucose uptake also was studied. The whole body glucose uptake dose-response curve was shifted to the right, and the rate of maximal whole body glucose uptake was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). Finally, we observed a direct relationship between the high-fat diet-induced weekly increase in mean arterial pressure and the degree to which insulin resistance developed. In summary, the current study documents that feeding dogs a high-fat diet causes the rapid development of insulin resistance that is the result of both a reduced sensitivity and a reduced responsiveness to insulin.