Time-Calibrated Phylogenies of Hummingbirds and Hummingbird-Pollinated Plants Reject a Hypothesis of Diffuse Co-Evolution

  title={Time-Calibrated Phylogenies of Hummingbirds and Hummingbird-Pollinated Plants Reject a Hypothesis of Diffuse Co-Evolution},
  author={Erin A. Tripp and Lucinda A. McDade},
Neotropical ecosystems house levels of species diversity that are unmatched by any other region on Earth. One hypothesis to explain this celebrated diversity invokes a model of biotic interactions in which interspecific interactions drive diversification of two (or more) lineages. When the impact of the interaction on diversification is reciprocal, diversification of the lineages should be contemporaneous. Although past studies have provided evidence needed to test alternative models of… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Disentangling geographical, biotic, and abiotic drivers of plant diversity in neotropical Ruellia (Acanthaceae)
Comparative methods test the macroevolutionary consequences of bird and bee pollination within a species rich lineage of flowering plants: Ruellia and recover no evidence of higher diversification rates among either bee- or non-bee-adapted lineages and no evidence for higher rates among wet or dry habitat lineages.
Hummingbird pollination and the diversification of angiosperms: an old and successful association in Gesneriaceae
It is demonstrated that floral specialization on hummingbirds for pollination has triggered rapid diversification in the Gesneriaceae family since the Early Miocene, and that it represents one of the oldest identified plant–hummingbird associations.
The evolution, ecology, and conservation of hummingbirds and their interactions with flowering plants
The extent to which plants and hummingbirds have coevolved over millions of years is assessed, the mechanisms underlying plant-hummingbird interaction frequencies and hummingbird specialization are examined, and range size and forest dependency are found to be key predictors of hummingbird extinction risk.
The temporal build-up of hummingbird/plant mutualisms in North America and temperate South America
The asymmetric diversity build-up between hummingbirds and the plants dependent on them appears to arise not from rapid speciation within hummingbird-pollinated clades, but instead from a gradual and continuing process in which independent plant species switch from insect to bird pollination.
Repeated evolution of vertebrate pollination syndromes in a recently diverged Andean plant clade
The study demonstrates the utility of pollination syndromes as a proxy for ecological relationships in macroevolutionary studies of certain species‐rich clades and suggests that floral morphological diversity is extremely labile, likely resulting from selection imposed by pollinators.
Are hummingbirds generalists or specialists? Using network analysis to explore the mechanisms influencing their interaction with nectar resources
This work is the first effort exploring the hummingbird-plant mutualistic network at a continental scale using hummingbird clades and plant families as nodes, offering an alternative approach to exploring the ecological and evolutionary factors that explain plant-animal interactions at a large scale.
A rich fossil record yields calibrated phylogeny for Acanthaceae (Lamiales) and evidence for marked biases in timing and directionality of intercontinental disjunctions.
This is the first study to reconstruct divergence times among clades of Acanthaceae and sets the stage for comparative evolutionary research in this and related families that have until now been thought to have extremely poor fossil resources.
Phylogenetic Relationships among Old World Ruellia L.: A New Classification and Reinstatement of the Genus Dinteracanthus Schinz
Ancestral state reconstruction of pollination systems among Old World Ruellia suggest a minimum of two transitions from short-tongued insect pollination to nocturnal moth pollination, one from Short-Tongued Insect to bird pollination and one reversal fromNocturnal moths pollination back to short- tongued insects pollination.
Reproductive character displacement and potential underlying drivers in a species‐rich and florally diverse lineage of tropical angiosperms (Ruellia; Acanthaceae)
It is found that crosses between species that differed more in overall flower size, particularly in style length, were significantly less likely to produce viable seeds and species pairs that failed to set seed were more likely to have sympatric distributions in nature.
Historical Biogeography of Caribbean Plants Revises Regional Paleogeography
The Caribbean archipelago is the largest and most species rich insular system in the Neotropics, yet the origins of this biodiversity hotspot are poorly understood. Four main hypotheses have been


Neotropical Plant Evolution: Assembling the Big Picture
High rates of species turnover as inferred from palaeontological and molecular data have been the hallmark of plant evolutionary dynamics in the Neotropics throughout the Cenozoic, with most extant species diversity post-dating the Mid- to Late Miocene.
New specimens of the early Oligocene Old World hummingbird Eurotrochilus inexpectatus
  • G. Mayr
  • Biology
    Journal of Ornithology
  • 2006
Stem group hummingbirds in Europe indicates an Old World origin of Pan-Trochilidae, and E. inexpectatus is the earliest long-beaked stem group hummingbird with hovering capabilities, and absence of modern- type hummingbirds before the early Oligocene may provide a maximum age for the origin of hummingbird-pollinated plants and the colonization of the New World by modern-type stem group hummers.
Contrasting plant diversification histories within the Andean biodiversity hotspot
The data suggest that the disjunct small valley pockets of inter-Andean SDTF have persisted over millions of years, which are rich in endemic species but massively impacted, and merit better representation in future plans for science and conservation in Andean countries.
Tempo and mode of hummingbird evolution
Evidence from a broader spectrum of organisms supports the general pattern that higher taxonomic structure within many extant continental families evolved in the Miocene, suggesting that a common environmental pacemaker initiated radiation in unrelated groups.
The fragility of extreme specialization: Passiflora mixta and its pollinating hummingbird Ensifera ensifera
Some of the most spectacular examples of coevolution between flowers and their pollinators are reflected in their morphologies, and most studies of such extreme pollination specialization report that the interaction is asymmetrical, i.e. the pollinators interact with a guild of plants, whereas the plant often depends on only a few pollinators.
Is Floral Specialization an Evolutionary Dead-End? Pollination System Transitions in Ruellia (Acanthaceae)
  • E. TrippP. Manos
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2008
Evidence for multiple reverse transitions from presumed ancestral hummingbird pollination to more derived bee or insect pollination is found and is consistent with the hypothesis that some transitions have been adaptive in the evolution of Ruellia.
Adaptive Radiation of Reproductive Characteristics in Angiosperms, I: Pollination Mechanisms
In angiosperms, the adaptive significance of differences between most higher categories, as well as between a large proportion of related species, is most probably associated with reproductive efficiency and successful establishment of seedlings rather than with any of the morphological characteristics of the vegetative parts.
Tracing the impact of the Andean uplift on Neotropical plant evolution
Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed the major role played by the uplift of the Andes in the extraordinary diversification of the Neotropical flora. These studies, however, have typically
Phylogenetic evidence for pollinator-driven diversification of angiosperms.
The relationship between butterflies and their food plants is investigated, the examination of patterns of interaction between two major groups of organisms with a close and evident ecological relationship, such as plants and herbivores.