Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system

@inproceedings{Lamport1978TimeCA,
  title={Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system},
  author={Leslie Lamport},
  booktitle={CACM},
  year={1978}
}
The concept of one event happening before another in a distributed system is examined, and is shown to define a partial ordering of the events. [...] Key Method The use of the total ordering is illustrated with a method for solving synchronization problems. The algorithm is then specialized for synchronizing physical clocks, and a bound is derived on how far out of synchrony the clocks can become.Expand
Logical time in distributed computing systems
The partial ordering of events as defined by their causal relationships, that is, the ability of one event to directly, or transitively, affect another is defined. Its generalized and practicalExpand
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An extension to the concept of vector clocks is presented and examined that is meant to overcome the vector clocks’ great drawback: that the number of processes in the distributed system has to be constant and known in advance. Expand
Logical Time in Distributed Software Systems
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An argument is provided that justifies the use of logical time as a mechanism for detecting causal relationships between events and the modifications of the vector clock that reduce the average communication overhead while retaining the property of isomorphism. Expand
An Upper and Lower Bound for Clock Synchronization
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It is proved that, even if the clocks all run at the same rate as real time and there are no failures, an uncertainty of e in the message delivery time makes it impossible to synchronize the clocks of n processes any more closely than e(1−1/ n ). Expand
Time and State in Asynchronous Distributed Systems
  • V. Garg, N. Mittal
  • Computer Science
  • Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering
  • 2008
TLDR
Different schemes that implement an abstract notion of time and can be used to order events in a distributed system to address two fundamental problems that arise in distributed systems. Expand
Simulating synchronized clocks and common knowledge in distributed systems
Time and knowledge are studied in synchronous and asynchronous distributed systems. A large class of problems that can be solved using logical clocks as if they were perfectly synchronized clocks isExpand
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This algorithm can maintain a global physical clock that reflects both the partial order and the elapsed time of all events occurred, and is suitable for parallel program performance debugging. Expand
An Overview of Clock Synchronization
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A distributed system consists of a set of processors that communicate by message transmission and that do not have access to a central clock, and the technique that is used to coordinate the notion of time is known as clock synchronization. Expand
Tree clocks: An efficient and entirely dynamic logical time system
  • T. Landes
  • Computer Science
  • Parallel and Distributed Computing and Networks
  • 2007
TLDR
In the paper at hand a new kind of logical clock concept is presented and examined that is meant to overcome the vector clocks' great drawback: that the number of processes in the distributed system has to be constant and known in advance. Expand
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