Tilted black-Si: ∼0.45 form-birefringence from sub-wavelength needles.

@article{Gaileviius2020TiltedB,
  title={Tilted black-Si: ∼0.45 form-birefringence from sub-wavelength needles.},
  author={Darius Gailevi{\vc}ius and Meguya Ryu and Reo Honda and Stefan Lundgaard and Tai Suzuki and Jovan Maksimovic and Jingwen Hu and Denver P. Linklater and Elena P. Ivanova and Tomas Katkus and Vijayakumar Anand and Mangirdas Malinauskas and Yoshiaki Nishijima and Soon Hock Ng and Kȩstutis Staliūnas and Junko Morikawa and Saulius Juodkazis},
  journal={Optics express},
  year={2020},
  volume={28 11},
  pages={
          16012-16026
        }
}
The self-organised conical needles produced by plasma etching of silicon (Si), known as black silicon (b-Si), create a form-birefringent surface texture when etching of Si orientated at angles of θi < 50 - 70° (angle between the Si surface and vertical plasma E-field). The height of the needles in the form-birefringent region following 15 min etching was d ∼ 200 nm and had a 100 μm width of the optical retardance/birefringence, characterised using polariscopy. The height of the b-Si needles… 
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