# Tight Private Circuits: Achieving Probing Security with the Least Refreshing

@inproceedings{Belad2018TightPC, title={Tight Private Circuits: Achieving Probing Security with the Least Refreshing}, author={Sonia Bela{\"i}d and Dahmun Goudarzi and Matthieu Rivain}, booktitle={IACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.}, year={2018} }

Masking is a common countermeasure to secure implementations against side-channel attacks. In 2003, Ishai, Sahai, and Wagner introduced a formal security model, named \(t\)-probing model, which is now widely used to theoretically reason on the security of masked implementations. While many works have provided security proofs for small masked components, called gadgets, within this model, no formal method allowed to securely compose gadgets with a tight number of shares (namely, \(t+1\)) until…

## 44 Citations

Randomness Optimization for Gadget Compositions in Higher-Order Masking

- Computer Science
- 2022

This work presents a novel approach to reduce the demands for randomness in such gadget-composed circuits by reusing randomness across gadgets while maintaining security in the probing adversary model, embedded into an Electronic Design Automation toolchain.

IronMask: Versatile Verification of Masking Security

- Computer ScienceIACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.
- 2021

IronMask is the first to verify the verification of standard simulation-based security notions in the probing model as well as recent composition and expandability notion in the random probing model, and is the only previous tool providing complete verification for quadratic gadgets with non-linear randomness.

Probing Security through Input-Output Separation and Revisited Quasilinear Masking

- Computer Science, MathematicsIACR Trans. Cryptogr. Hardw. Embed. Syst.
- 2021

A new framework for the composition of probing-secure circuits is introduced and the security notion of input-output separation (IOS) for a refresh gadget is introduced, showing that any uniform SNI gadget achieves the IOS security notion, while the converse is not true.

Random Probing Security: Verification, Composition, Expansion and New Constructions

- Computer Science, MathematicsIACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.
- 2020

This work states that the most widely used leakage model, the probing model defined by Ishai, Sahai, and Wagner at (CRYPTO 2003), requires more complex security proofs and does not yet come with practical constructions.

Composable Gadgets with Reused Fresh Masks First-Order Probing-Secure Hardware Circuits with only 6 Fresh Masks

- Computer Science
- 2022

This work gives an instantiation of gadgets realizing arbitrary XOR and AND gates with an arbitrary number of inputs which can be trivially extended to all basic logic gates, breaking the linear dependency between the number of gates in a circuit and the randomness requirements.

Side-Channel Masking with Common Shares

- Computer ScienceIACR Trans. Cryptogr. Hardw. Embed. Syst.
- 2022

A new masking scheme in which many intermediates can be precomputed before executing the masked function, and a new security notion intrinsically supporting randomness / variables reusing across gadgets, and bridging the security of parallel compositions of gadgets to general compositions, is proposed.

maskVerif : automated analysis of software and hardware higher-order masked implementations

- Computer Science, Mathematics
- 2018

New information flow-based techniques for proving security of hardware implementations in the models of Bloem et al. and Faust improve over the algorithms of (Barthe et al, EUROCRYPT 2015) in terms of coverage and efficiency, allowing for verification at higher orders and minimizing the possibility of false negatives.

Transitional Leakage in Theory and Practice - Unveiling Security Flaws in Masked Circuits

- Computer ScienceIACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.
- 2022

SILVER is extended, a recently proposed tool for formal security verification of masked logic circuits, to also detect and verify information leakage resulting from combinations of glitches and transitions, and confirms the accuracy and practical relevance of the methodology when assessing and verifying information leakage in hardware implementations.

SILVER - Statistical Independence and Leakage Verification

- Computer ScienceIACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.
- 2020

This work presents a new framework to analyze and verify masked implementations against various security notions using different security models as reference and particularly relies on Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs) and the concept of statistical independence of probability distributions.

Table Recomputation-Based Higher-Order Masking Against Horizontal Attacks

- Computer ScienceIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
- 2020

This work proposes a new table recomputation-based higher-order masking scheme, named as table compression masking (TCM) scheme, and gives the formal security proof under the <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">${t}$ </tex- math></inline- formula>-SNI security definition, as well as a heuristic security analysis considering the HSCA.

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