Tiers of ontology and consistency constraints in geographical information systems

@article{Frank2001TiersOO,
  title={Tiers of ontology and consistency constraints in geographical information systems},
  author={Andrew U. Frank},
  journal={International Journal of Geographical Information Science},
  year={2001},
  volume={15},
  pages={667 - 678}
}
  • A. Frank
  • Published 1 October 2001
  • Computer Science
  • International Journal of Geographical Information Science
Consistency constraints placed on a database to assure, that values incorporated in the database are consistent, are a well known foundation of Geographical Information Systems. Unfortunately in real situations rules for consistency constraints are not so clear, and inconsistent ontologies are common place, not least in geographical information, covering as it does a much wider realm than many other information systems I have suggested elsewhere 5-tiers of ontology for GIS. Such an ontology can… 
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