Tics and stereotypies: A comparative clinical review.

  title={Tics and stereotypies: A comparative clinical review.},
  author={Davide Martino and Tammy Hedderly},
  journal={Parkinsonism \& related disorders},
Controversies Surrounding the Pathophysiology of Tics
Data from convergent clinical and animal model studies support complex interactions among the various CBGTC sites and neurotransmitters and numerous pathophysiologic questions persist.
Possible tics diagnosed as stereotypies in patients with severe autism spectrum disorder: a video-based evaluation
The association of stereotypies and tics is not rare in children with severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The differential diagnosis between stereotypies and tics in this patient population can be
The spectrum of involuntary vocalizations in humans: A video atlas
An algorithmic approach is presented that covers the wide range of involuntary vocalizations in humans, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnostic accuracy and guiding appropriate treatment.
A Comprehensive Review of Tic Disorders in Children
An overview of tics and tic disorders including history, definition, diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic approach, comorbidities, treatment and management, and differential diagnosis is provided.
Tics and Emotions
Support is found for the notion that premonitory sensory phenomena, sensory stimulation, and other environmental stressors that impact the HPA axis can influence tics through dopaminergic neurotransmission, and it is concluded that there is an emotional component to ticking behaviors.
Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with repetitive compulsive behaviors in patients with penetrating brain injury
It is found that damage to specific CSTC elements can be associated with the development of compulsive behaviours and tics that are not necessarily accompanied by obsessions.
Sex differences in movement disorders
An up-to-date review of sex-related differences in PD and the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders, namely, essential tremor, dystonia, Huntington disease and other chorea syndromes, and Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders is provided.
Current Status, Diagnosis, and Treatment Recommendation for Tic Disorders in China
The Chinese Child Neurology Society (CCNS) has developed an Expert Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of TD in China, which is focused on clinical diagnosis and evaluation of TD and its comorbidities, psychological and educational intervention, nonpharmacological therapy, pharmacological treatment, including traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture, as well as prognosis in children withTD in China.
[Tics and Tourette's syndrome in children].
  • V. Zykov
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova
  • 2020
The analysis of the literature supports the plausibility of transformation of tics and Tourette's syndrome from psychiatric disorders into neurological disorders (according to ICD-11) based on recent data on neurophysiology and functional neuroanatomy.
Neuropathology and pathogenesis of extrapyramidal movement disorders: a critical update. II. Hyperkinetic disorders
  • K. Jellinger
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of Neural Transmission
  • 2019
Current clinical consensus criteria have increased the diagnostic accuracy of most neurodegenerative movement disorders, but for their definite diagnosis, histopathological confirmation is required.


Stereotypic Movement Disorders.
  • M. Katherine
  • Psychology, Biology
    Seminars in pediatric neurology
  • 2018
Pathophysiology of tic disorders
A division of the corticobasal ganglia pathway and its interaction with motor, sensory, limbic, and executive networks in each of the components as well as their control by different neuromodulators allows a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TDs as a whole.
Neuroimaging of tic genesis: Present status and future perspectives
This work reviews recent structural and functional neuroimaging studies that focused on the anatomical substrate of tics and their possible genesis and suggests the failure of top‐down cortical control over motor pathways because of the atypical trajectory of brain development could be a possible mechanism of tic genesis.
Misophonia in Children with Tic Disorders: A Case Series
It is postulated that misophonia could be an underestimated causative phenomenon for abrupt emotional dysregulation in individuals with tic disorders and should be considered as part of a comprehensive clinical assessment.
Social disinhibition is a heritable subphenotype of tics in Tourette syndrome
A series of TS-related phenotypes, including one characterized by high rates of social disinhibition, were identified, which may reflect underlying biological networks more accurately than traditional diagnoses, thus potentially aiding future genetic, imaging, and treatment studies.
The neurophysiological correlates of motor tics following focal striatal disinhibition.
The results demonstrate that the basal Ganglia provide a finely timed disinhibition in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia of behaving primates, and suggests that rather than representing a specific action within the basalganglia itself, these nuclei provide a temporally exact but spatially distributed release signal.
Behavioral Therapy for Treatment of Stereotypic Movements in Nonautistic Children
The combined use of habit reversal and differential reinforcement of other behavior is beneficial in reducing motor stereotypies in nonautistic children.