Tics and functional tic-like movements

@article{Ganos2019TicsAF,
  title={Tics and functional tic-like movements},
  author={Christos Ganos and Davide Martino and Alberto J. Espay and Anthony E. Lang and Kailash P. Bhatia and Mark J. Edwards},
  journal={Neurology},
  year={2019},
  volume={93},
  pages={750 - 758}
}
Within the broad spectrum of movement disorders, tics and functional tic-like movements belong to a particular clinical category. Both types of movements are within the range of normal movement kinematics and muscle synergies, but appear repetitive and without appropriate context embedment. Historically, there have been many attempts to separate the 2 types of movements, but because of their phenomenological overlap, clinical distinction may be prone to error, and misdiagnoses may often occur… 
Tics and Tic‐like Phenomena—Old Questions on a Grand New Scale Invited Editorial on TikTok and Tics
  • C. Ganos
  • Psychology
    Movement disorders clinical practice
  • 2021
TLDR
The identification of exposure to specific content in different online media platforms, such as TikTok or YouTube, portraying the very same or akin behaviors shared under the tic and/or Tourette’s label was identified, demonstrating significant phenomenological overlap between the video content and the behaviors of affected individuals.
The spectrum of involuntary vocalizations in humans: A video atlas
TLDR
An algorithmic approach is presented that covers the wide range of involuntary vocalizations in humans, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnostic accuracy and guiding appropriate treatment.
Clinical Practice Patterns in Tic Disorders Among Movement Disorder Society Members
Background: Tic disorders belong to the broad spectrum of pediatric and adult movement disorders. The wide variability in clinical presentations, applied assessment tools, and treatments are poorly
The phenomenology of tics and tic-like behavior in TikTok
TLDR
TS symptoms portrayals on highly-viewed TikTok videos are predominantly not representative or typical of TS.
Purposely Induced Tics: Electrophysiology
TLDR
Simultaneous electroencephalography and electromyographic activity were recorded to capture the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) to explore the physiology of this phenomenon.
Recent progress on Tourette syndrome
TLDR
An overview of recent progress on Tourette syndrome is provided, including behavioral therapy, pharmacological treatment, and surgical treatment, for treatment of tics.
Decade of progress in motor functional neurological disorder: continuing the momentum
TLDR
Advances over the past decade across diagnosis, mechanisms, aetiologies, treatments and stigma in patients with motor FND (mFND, that is, functional movement disorder and functional limb weakness) are reviewed.
Rotational plane-wise analysis of angular movement of neck motor tics in Tourette's syndrome
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 67 REFERENCES
Pathophysiology of tic disorders
TLDR
A division of the corticobasal ganglia pathway and its interaction with motor, sensory, limbic, and executive networks in each of the components as well as their control by different neuromodulators allows a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TDs as a whole.
The clinical features of psychogenic movement disorders resembling tics
TLDR
Movements resembling tics are observed in a small proportion of patients with PMDs, and clinical features can help to differentiate them from organic tics.
Neurobiology of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders
TLDR
New understanding of the neurobiology of FMD forms an important part of reappraising the way that patients with FMD (and other functional disorders) are characterized and treated and provides a testable framework for further exploring the pathophysiology of these common causes of ill health.
A positive diagnosis of functional (psychogenic) tics
TLDR
It is suggested that functional tics can be differentiated from organic tics on clinical grounds, though it is also accepted that this distinction can be difficult in certain cases.
Voluntary or involuntary? A neurophysiologic approach to functional movement disorders.
Motor tics evoked by striatal disinhibition in the rat
TLDR
The results suggest that striatal disinhibition in the rat may be used to model motor tics such as observed in TS, and could facilitate the study of the neural mechanisms underlyingMotor tics, and the testing of potential therapies for tic disorders.
Corticostriatal Divergent Function in Determining the Temporal and Spatial Properties of Motor Tics
TLDR
Although tics originate in the striatum, their timing depends on the interplay between incoming excitatory corticostriatal inputs and the internal striatal state, and this study shows that the abnormal striatal inhibition typical of Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders results in tics due to cortical activation of the abnormalstriatal network.
Delayed experience of volition in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
TLDR
Patients with TS showed a delayed experience of intention relative to controls whereas estimates of the actual movement onset were similar for patients and controls, suggesting an abnormal experience of volition in patients with TS.
The neurophysiological correlates of motor tics following focal striatal disinhibition.
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the basal Ganglia provide a finely timed disinhibition in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia of behaving primates, and suggests that rather than representing a specific action within the basalganglia itself, these nuclei provide a temporally exact but spatially distributed release signal.
...
...