Tics and functional tic-like movements

  title={Tics and functional tic-like movements},
  author={Christos Ganos and Davide Martino and Alberto J. Espay and Anthony E. Lang and Kailash P. Bhatia and Mark J. Edwards},
  pages={750 - 758}
Within the broad spectrum of movement disorders, tics and functional tic-like movements belong to a particular clinical category. Both types of movements are within the range of normal movement kinematics and muscle synergies, but appear repetitive and without appropriate context embedment. Historically, there have been many attempts to separate the 2 types of movements, but because of their phenomenological overlap, clinical distinction may be prone to error, and misdiagnoses may often occur… 
Tics and Tic‐like Phenomena—Old Questions on a Grand New Scale Invited Editorial on TikTok and Tics
  • C. Ganos
  • Psychology
    Movement disorders clinical practice
  • 2021
The identification of exposure to specific content in different online media platforms, such as TikTok or YouTube, portraying the very same or akin behaviors shared under the tic and/or Tourette’s label was identified, demonstrating significant phenomenological overlap between the video content and the behaviors of affected individuals.
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TS symptoms portrayals on highly-viewed TikTok videos are predominantly not representative or typical of TS.
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Rotational plane-wise analysis of angular movement of neck motor tics in Tourette's syndrome


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It is suggested that functional tics can be differentiated from organic tics on clinical grounds, though it is also accepted that this distinction can be difficult in certain cases.
Voluntary or involuntary? A neurophysiologic approach to functional movement disorders.
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The results suggest that striatal disinhibition in the rat may be used to model motor tics such as observed in TS, and could facilitate the study of the neural mechanisms underlyingMotor tics, and the testing of potential therapies for tic disorders.
Corticostriatal Divergent Function in Determining the Temporal and Spatial Properties of Motor Tics
Although tics originate in the striatum, their timing depends on the interplay between incoming excitatory corticostriatal inputs and the internal striatal state, and this study shows that the abnormal striatal inhibition typical of Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders results in tics due to cortical activation of the abnormalstriatal network.
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Patients with TS showed a delayed experience of intention relative to controls whereas estimates of the actual movement onset were similar for patients and controls, suggesting an abnormal experience of volition in patients with TS.
The neurophysiological correlates of motor tics following focal striatal disinhibition.
The results demonstrate that the basal Ganglia provide a finely timed disinhibition in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia of behaving primates, and suggests that rather than representing a specific action within the basalganglia itself, these nuclei provide a temporally exact but spatially distributed release signal.