Tics and Tourette syndrome

  title={Tics and Tourette syndrome},
  author={Russell C. Dale},
  journal={Journal of the Neurological Sciences},
  • R. Dale
  • Published 1 October 2018
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Tourette syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder. The genetic basis is complex, and both in utero and ex utero environmental factors may modify the phenotypic expression of the disorder. Inflammation related to aberrations in immune activation appears to play a pathogenic role in some cases. Multiple neurochemical pathways are involved. Rather than being a pure movement problem, tics are now understood to also have a sensory component. This has resulted in new psychological therapeutic strategies… 
Tics of Trauma: Unique Case of Trauma-Associated Psychogenic Tics in an Adolescent Patient
A 16-year-old girl with a history of trauma who initially presented with depression and trauma-related anxiety develops verbal and motor tic-like symptoms that worsened with stress and court proceedings, classified as psychogenic tics secondary to the trauma associated with sexual abuse.
European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders—version 2.0. Part III: pharmacological treatment
Overall, treatment of TS should be individualized, and decisions based on the patient’s needs and preferences, presence of co-existing conditions, latest scientific findings as well as on the physician's preferences, experience, and local regulatory requirements are presented.
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In the authors' sample, comorbid CTD/TS seem to represent a marker of overall symptom severity as evidenced by longer admissions, which is significant in children needing inpatient treatment.
Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Youths Affected by Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Based on Data from a Large Single Italian Clinical Cohort
The incidence of GTS and ASD comorbidity in this study was high, and this has several implications in terms of treatment and prognosis.
Enrichment and Correlation Analysis of Serum miRNAs in Comorbidity Between Arnold-Chiari and Tourette Syndrome Contribute to Clarify Their Molecular Bases
The dysregulation of the miRNA set is proposed as a potential molecular tool for supporting the current diagnosis of AC, TS, and ACTS by using liquid biopsies, in an unbiased and non-invasive way.
The Histaminergic System in Neuropsychiatric Disorders
This review comprehensively summarize recent experimental and clinical findings on the precise role of histaminergic system in neuropsychiatric disorders, including cell-type role and its circuit bases in narcolepsy, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Tourette's syndrome and Parkinson’s disease.
Tourette syndrome research highlights from 2018
This is the fifth yearly article in the Tourette Syndrome Research Highlights series, summarizing research from 2018 relevant to Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. The authors briefly
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Tic-related pain was reported to have a significant physical and psychological impact which impacted aspects of daily living in people with tic disorders, adding to limited research suggesting tic- related pain is a dominant issue for individuals with ti disorders, potentially impacting upon their quality of life.
Target-Specific Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
It is concluded that DBS is a clinically effective treatment option for patients with treatment-refractory Tourette syndrome, with all targets showing comparable improvement rates.


Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome – Review Article
  • O. Suchowersky
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences / Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
  • 1994
Tourette syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics and investigations have suggested that the cause may be an abnormality either in the dopaminergic or endorphin receptor system within the basal ganglia.
Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review
  • R. Dale
  • Medicine, Biology
    Current opinion in pediatrics
  • 2017
Investigation of blood cytokines, blood mRNA and brain mRNA expression support the role of a persistent immune activation, and there are similarities with the immune literature of autistic spectrum disorder.
Clinical assessment of Tourette syndrome and tic disorders
The Inheritance of Tourette Disorder: A review.
Parsing the phenotype of obsessive-compulsive tic disorder (OCTD): a multidisciplinary consensus
Main epidemiologic, socio-demographic and clinical features characterising OCTD patients are critically identified, along with other specific aspects including Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL), economic consequences related with the condition and its management, as well as treatment-related issues that need to be further investigated.
Distinct structural changes underpin clinical phenotypes in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
Data support the hypothesis that different symptom dimensions in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome are associated with dysfunction of distinct cortical areas and have clear implications for the current neuroanatomical model of this syndrome.
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: clinical description of the first 50 cases.
The working diagnostic criteria appear to accurately characterize a homogeneous patient group in which symptom exacerbations are triggered by GABHS infections.
Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study.