Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review

  title={Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review},
  author={Russell C. Dale},
  journal={Current Opinion in Pediatrics},
  • R. Dale
  • Published 1 December 2017
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Purpose of review Describe developments in the etiological understanding of Tourette syndrome. Recent findings Tourette syndrome is a complex heterogenous clinical syndrome, which is not a unitary entity. Pathophysiological models describe gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-associated disinhibition of cortico-basal ganglia motor, sensory and limbic loops. MRI studies support basal ganglia volume loss, with additional white matter and cerebellar changes. Tourette syndrome cause likely involves… 
Tics and Tourette syndrome
  • R. Dale
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences
  • 2021
The clinical features and pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome are reviewed, and a pragmatic management approach is discussed.
Immunological Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome and Related Disorders
An autoimmune dysfunction has been proposed in the pathogenetic mechanism of Tourette syndrome and related neuropsychiatric disorders such as obsessive–compulsive disorder, autism, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Profiles of Proinflammatory Cytokines and T Cells in Patients With Tourette Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis
Evidence of immune dysfunction in pediatric TS patients is provided, with elevated levels of particular proinflammatory cytokines and disproportionate changes in T-cell subpopulations and the results indicate a close association between peripheral immune activation and TS.
Controversies Surrounding the Pathophysiology of Tics
Data from convergent clinical and animal model studies support complex interactions among the various CBGTC sites and neurotransmitters and numerous pathophysiologic questions persist.
Tourette's disorder in children and adolescents.
Concepts of management are considered including behavioral therapy and pharmacologic approaches with alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, atypical antipsychotics (AAs), haloperidol, pimozide and others.
Neuropathology and pathogenesis of extrapyramidal movement disorders: a critical update. II. Hyperkinetic disorders
  • K. Jellinger
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of Neural Transmission
  • 2019
Current clinical consensus criteria have increased the diagnostic accuracy of most neurodegenerative movement disorders, but for their definite diagnosis, histopathological confirmation is required.
The case of a pediatric patient with TS who was admitted to the hospital after demonstrating severe involuntary movements and was selected Aripiprazole because of its unique mechanism of action resulted in a dopamine stabilizer feature with less side effect.
Allergic diseases influence symptom severity and T lymphocyte subgroups of children with tic disorders
It was concluded that allergy increased the severity of TD through an imbalance in cellular immunity, and children with TD plus allergic diseases have imbalanced T lymphocyte subsets.


Treatment of Tourette Syndrome
  • R. Kurlan
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • 2013
Tourette’s syndrome consists of chronic motor and phonic tics and characteristically begins in childhood and it is important to appropriately diagnose and treat comorbid behavioral disorders that are disrupting function.
The Inheritance of Tourette Disorder: A review.
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: clinical description of the first 50 cases.
The working diagnostic criteria appear to accurately characterize a homogeneous patient group in which symptom exacerbations are triggered by GABHS infections.
Immune-mediated animal models of Tourette syndrome
Basal Ganglia volumes in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
Reduced caudate nucleus volumes may be a good candidate marker for a trait abnormality in the structure of the basal ganglia in persons with TS and for the persistence of tic symptoms into adulthood.
Tics and Tourette's: update on pathophysiology and tic control.
  • C. Ganos
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in neurology
  • 2016
The study of Tourette syndrome pathophysiology involves different neural disciplines and provides novel, exciting insights of brain function in health and disease, which provide the basis for innovative treatment approaches of tics and their associations.
Oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with Tourette's syndrome
Investigation of oligoclonal bands of immunoglobulin G in cerebrospinal fluid indicates a humoral immune response in the central nervous system and suggests an association with the pathogenesis of TS itself and point to an involvement of immunological mechanisms in TS pathology.