Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review

  title={Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review},
  author={Russell C. Dale},
  journal={Current Opinion in Pediatrics},
  • R. Dale
  • Published 1 December 2017
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Purpose of review Describe developments in the etiological understanding of Tourette syndrome. Recent findings Tourette syndrome is a complex heterogenous clinical syndrome, which is not a unitary entity. Pathophysiological models describe gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-associated disinhibition of cortico-basal ganglia motor, sensory and limbic loops. MRI studies support basal ganglia volume loss, with additional white matter and cerebellar changes. Tourette syndrome cause likely involves… 
Tics and Tourette syndrome
  • R. Dale
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences
  • 2021
The clinical features and pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome are reviewed, and a pragmatic management approach is discussed.
Immunological Dysfunction in Tourette Syndrome and Related Disorders
An autoimmune dysfunction has been proposed in the pathogenetic mechanism of Tourette syndrome and related neuropsychiatric disorders such as obsessive–compulsive disorder, autism, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Profiles of Proinflammatory Cytokines and T Cells in Patients With Tourette Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis
Evidence of immune dysfunction in pediatric TS patients is provided, with elevated levels of particular proinflammatory cytokines and disproportionate changes in T-cell subpopulations and the results indicate a close association between peripheral immune activation and TS.
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (Review)
A thorough review of the literature was carried out using the PubMed database and SCOPUS, searching for immunological, clinical and microbiological aspects, as well as the treatment of the PANDAS syndrome, to establish the best method of therapy.
Controversies Surrounding the Pathophysiology of Tics
Data from convergent clinical and animal model studies support complex interactions among the various CBGTC sites and neurotransmitters and numerous pathophysiologic questions persist.
Tourette's disorder in children and adolescents.
Concepts of management are considered including behavioral therapy and pharmacologic approaches with alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, atypical antipsychotics (AAs), haloperidol, pimozide and others.
Neuropathology and pathogenesis of extrapyramidal movement disorders: a critical update. II. Hyperkinetic disorders
  • K. Jellinger
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of Neural Transmission
  • 2019
Current clinical consensus criteria have increased the diagnostic accuracy of most neurodegenerative movement disorders, but for their definite diagnosis, histopathological confirmation is required.
The case of a pediatric patient with TS who was admitted to the hospital after demonstrating severe involuntary movements and was selected Aripiprazole because of its unique mechanism of action resulted in a dopamine stabilizer feature with less side effect.


Tourette’s Syndrome and Role of Tetrabenazine
Results of a retrospective chart review showed that 2 years’ treatment with tetrabenazine resulted in an improvement in functioning and TS-related symptoms in over 80% of patients, findings that suggest that treatment with ritussenazine may have long-term benefits, and suggest that tetrABenazine may be suitable as add-on therapy in patients for whom additional suppression of tics is required.
The Genetic Etiology of Tourette Syndrome: Large-Scale Collaborative Efforts on the Precipice of Discovery
These complementary large-scale efforts are joining forces to uncover the full range of genetic variation and environmental risk factors for TS, holding great promise for identifying definitive TS susceptibility genes and shedding light into the complex pathophysiology of this disorder.
Pathophysiology of tic disorders
A division of the corticobasal ganglia pathway and its interaction with motor, sensory, limbic, and executive networks in each of the components as well as their control by different neuromodulators allows a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TDs as a whole.
Treatment of Tourette Syndrome
  • R. Kurlan
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • 2013
Tourette’s syndrome consists of chronic motor and phonic tics and characteristically begins in childhood and it is important to appropriately diagnose and treat comorbid behavioral disorders that are disrupting function.
The Inheritance of Tourette Disorder: A review.
From Genetics to Epigenetics: New Perspectives in Tourette Syndrome Research
It is proposed that some general epigenetic mechanisms seen in other neuropsychiatric disorders may also play a role in the pathogenesis of Tourette Syndrome.
Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: clinical description of the first 50 cases.
The working diagnostic criteria appear to accurately characterize a homogeneous patient group in which symptom exacerbations are triggered by GABHS infections.
The First World Congress on Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders: Controversies and Hot Topics in Etiology and Treatment
The first World Congress on Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders was held in London, June 2016 and two moderated debates, which covered emerging research in etiology and treatment, demonstrated the vibrancy of a field that has considerably expanded in the last decade.