Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review

@article{Dale2017TicsAT,
  title={Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review},
  author={Russell C. Dale},
  journal={Current Opinion in Pediatrics},
  year={2017},
  volume={29},
  pages={665–673}
}
  • R. Dale
  • Published 1 December 2017
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Purpose of review Describe developments in the etiological understanding of Tourette syndrome. Recent findings Tourette syndrome is a complex heterogenous clinical syndrome, which is not a unitary entity. Pathophysiological models describe gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-associated disinhibition of cortico-basal ganglia motor, sensory and limbic loops. MRI studies support basal ganglia volume loss, with additional white matter and cerebellar changes. Tourette syndrome cause likely involves… 
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    Journal of the Neurological Sciences
  • 2021
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The clinical features and pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome are reviewed, and a pragmatic management approach is discussed.
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An autoimmune dysfunction has been proposed in the pathogenetic mechanism of Tourette syndrome and related neuropsychiatric disorders such as obsessive–compulsive disorder, autism, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Profiles of Proinflammatory Cytokines and T Cells in Patients With Tourette Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis
TLDR
Evidence of immune dysfunction in pediatric TS patients is provided, with elevated levels of particular proinflammatory cytokines and disproportionate changes in T-cell subpopulations and the results indicate a close association between peripheral immune activation and TS.
Controversies Surrounding the Pathophysiology of Tics
TLDR
Data from convergent clinical and animal model studies support complex interactions among the various CBGTC sites and neurotransmitters and numerous pathophysiologic questions persist.
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TLDR
Concepts of management are considered including behavioral therapy and pharmacologic approaches with alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, atypical antipsychotics (AAs), haloperidol, pimozide and others.
Neuropathology and pathogenesis of extrapyramidal movement disorders: a critical update. II. Hyperkinetic disorders
  • K. Jellinger
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of Neural Transmission
  • 2019
TLDR
Current clinical consensus criteria have increased the diagnostic accuracy of most neurodegenerative movement disorders, but for their definite diagnosis, histopathological confirmation is required.
ORAL ARIPIPRAZOLE FOR THE TREATMENT OF TOURETTE’S SYNDROME IN CHILDREN
TLDR
The case of a pediatric patient with TS who was admitted to the hospital after demonstrating severe involuntary movements and was selected Aripiprazole because of its unique mechanism of action resulted in a dopamine stabilizer feature with less side effect.
Allergic diseases influence symptom severity and T lymphocyte subgroups of children with tic disorders
TLDR
It was concluded that allergy increased the severity of TD through an imbalance in cellular immunity, and children with TD plus allergic diseases have imbalanced T lymphocyte subsets.
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