Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change

  title={Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change},
  author={Elisabet Lindgren and Rolf Gustafson},
  journal={The Lancet},

Tick-borne encephalitis transmission risk: its dependence on host population dynamics and climate effects.

  • R. Palo
  • Environmental Science
    Vector borne and zoonotic diseases
  • 2014
Analysis of time series of TBE for 1976-2011 in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation, mean summer temperatures, and yearly number of harvested European hare, roe deer, and red fox in the County of Stockholm shows that TBE cases seem to be more dependent on host population dynamics than on climate factors.

Climate Change Cannot Explain the Upsurge of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in the Baltics

It is proposed that climate is just one of many different types of factors that have acted synergistically to increase both the abundance of infected ticks and the exposure of humans to these ticks.

Prevalence of tick borne encephalitis virus in tick nymphs in relation to climatic factors on the southern coast of Norway

This study confirms the existence of TBEV endemic foci in Norway and indicates that the location with highest point prevalence had the highest relative mean humidity and lowest mean saturation deficit and vice versa for the lowest EPP.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) trends in epidemiology and current and future management.

Investigating the spatial patterns and climate dependency of Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Sweden

This study recommends further spatial analysis and modelling of the spread of TBE in relation to climate factors to allow policy makers within the public health sector to make informed decisions regarding preventative schemes and rehabilitation programmes.

Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis, and climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus.

Why is tick-borne encephalitis increasing? A review of the key factors causing the increasing incidence of human TBE in Swedena

This review of the ecology and epidemiology of TBE in Sweden finds that the unusually warm, humid weather and the prolonged vegetation period in 2011 permitted nymphs and adult ticks to quest for hosts nearly all days of that year and is likely to result in a TBE incidence of 2012 similar to or higher than that of 2011.

The impact of climate change on the expansion of Ixodes persulcatus habitat and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in the north of European Russia

Climate change contributed much to the TBE incidence increase in AO and the increase both in mean annual air temperatures and temperatures during tick active season resulted in the northward expansion of Ixodid ticks, main TBE virus vector.



Climate and Tickborne Encephalitis

Climatic changes are projected to alter the abundance, dynamics, and geographical distribution of many vectorborne diseases in human populations. Tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and

Epidemiological studies of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis.

  • R. Gustafson
  • Medicine
    Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases. Supplementum
  • 1994
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus, vector of Borrelia burgdorferi and TBE virus (TBEV), is most abundant in the southern and central parts of Sweden. About 2000 cases of Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 50-80

Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus.

It is concluded that the relatively mild climate of the 1990s in Sweden is probably one of the primary reasons for the observed increase of density and geographic range of I. ricinus ticks.

An epidemiologic study of Lyme disease in southern Sweden.

Lyme disease is very common in southern Sweden, with a relatively high frequency of neurologic complications and arthritis, and the pattern of disease was similar to that reported in the United States.

Survival and development of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under various climatic conditions in Ontario, Canada.

Though some eggs can overwinter successfully, suggesting that latitude-related reduction in seasonal temperature may not limit distribution of this tick in Ontario, hatchability was low and this factor, combined with innate incremental mortality at each instar, difficulty in finding a mate, and low density of medium to large mammal hosts for adults, may mitigate against establishment of I. scapularis.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Helsinki 1962-1970. Epidemic pattern and autoimmune manifestations.

146 cases of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia were treated at Aurora Hospital, Helsinki, 1962-1970, and cold agglutinins were detected in 84% of 86 cases studied.

Tick-Borne Encephalitis in Southern Germany

An epidemiologic and clinical description of 656 patients with meningitis and encephalitis associated with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is

Ambient air temperature as a predictor of activity of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

Based on winter flagging experiments on Long Island, NY, adult Ixodes scapularis Say have an apparent threshold of questing activity at 4 degrees C. This threshold should be incorporated into public

Influence of the microclimate on the vertical distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.) in Central Europe

C'est l'explication meme de the limite superieure de distribution d'I.

The regional impacts of climate change : an assessment of vulnerability

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was jointly established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme in 1988 to assess the scientific and