Tibial torsion. Normal values in children.

  title={Tibial torsion. Normal values in children.},
  author={R L Valmassy and Bonita Stanton},
  journal={Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association},
  volume={79 9},
In-toeing and out-toeing are common foot problems, and frequently are caused by torsional abnormalities of the tibia. Malleolar position, and thus tibial torsion, was measured in 281 children, 1 1/2 to 6 years of age, with a Tractograph, and normal values for the different age groups were determined. The authors discuss the clinical significance of torsional abnormalities of the tibia regarding gait.