Thyronamines--past, present, and future.

@article{Piehl2011ThyronaminespastPA,
  title={Thyronamines--past, present, and future.},
  author={Susanne Piehl and Carolin Stephanie Hoefig and Thomas S. Scanlan and Josef K{\"o}hrle},
  journal={Endocrine reviews},
  year={2011},
  volume={32 1},
  pages={
          64-80
        }
}
Thyronamines (TAMs) are a newly identified class of endogenous signaling compounds. Their structure is identical to that of thyroid hormone and deiodinated thyroid hormone derivatives, except that TAMs do not possess a carboxylate group. Despite some initial publications dating back to the 1950s, TAMs did not develop into an independent area of research until 2004, when they were rediscovered as potential ligands to a class of G protein-coupled receptors called trace-amine associated receptors… Expand
Thyronamines – decarboxylated derivatives of thyroid hormones – new family of endogenous signaling molecules ?
Thyronamines (TAMs) are derivatives of thyroid hormones, produced via decarboxylation of the alanine chain. They act as endogenous signaling molecules and were firstly discovered in early 50thies ofExpand
Thyronamines and Analogues - The Route from Rediscovery to Translational Research on Thyronergic Amines
TLDR
This work discusses the different chemical strategies followed to obtain thyronamine analogues, their potency at TAAR1, and their structure-activity relationship, and preliminary characterization of the functional effects of these synthetic compounds is provided. Expand
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Thyronamines are a novel class of endogenous signaling compounds, structurally related to thyroid hormones (THs). Specific thyronamines, particularly 3iodothyronamine (T1AM), stimulate with nanomolarExpand
Subchapter 93C – Thyronamines
Thyronamines (TAMs), which may be derived from thyroid hormones (THs) by deiodination and decarboxylation, are biologically active trace amines. Among nine TAMs, 3-T1AM is the most potent one. TAMsExpand
Thyronamines and Derivatives: Physiological Relevance, Pharmacological Actions, and Future Research Directions.
TLDR
The potent endogenous thyroid hormone-derived biogenic amine 3-T1AM exerts marked cryogenic, metabolic, cardiac and central actions and represents a valuable lead compound linking endocrine, metabolic and neuroscience research to advance development of new drugs. Expand
Tissue thyroid hormones and thyronamines
TLDR
This review summarizes the present knowledge on thyroxine (T4) transport and metabolism and on the biochemical pathways leading to genomic and non-genomic effects produced by 3,5,3′-triiodothyronines (T3) and by its active metabolites, particularly3,5-diiodothyRONine ( T2) and 3-iodothyronsamine (T1AM). Expand
TH Metabolism and Active TH Metabolites in the Heart
Thyroid hormones (THs), namely T3 and T4, display many effects on cardiac function by interacting with their specific nuclear receptors (genomic effects) or with different targets (non-genomicExpand
Does the aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase contribute to thyronamine biosynthesis?
TLDR
It is proposed that the enzymatic decarboxylation needed to form TAM from TH is catalyzed by another unique, perhaps TH-specific, decar boxylase. Expand
Update on 3-iodothyronamine and its neurological and metabolic actions
TLDR
T1AM should be considered as a component of thyroid hormone signaling and might play a significant physiological and/or pathophysiological role. Expand
Delivery of Thyronamines (TAMs) to the Brain: A Preliminary Study
TLDR
Results indicate that T1AM is able to efficiently cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), whereas TA1 is almost completely devoid of this property. Expand
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References

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Minireview: 3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM): a new player on the thyroid endocrine team?
TLDR
This review will discuss the latest developments on this recently discovered thyroid hormone derivative, T(1)AM, which has a carbon skeleton identical to that of T(4) and contains a single carbon-iodine bond. Expand
Cardiac effects of thyronamines
TLDR
Functional effects have been observed after administration of exogenous T1AM: in the isolated heart, a negative inotropic and chronotropic action was produced, and the resistance to ischemic injury was increased, possibly as a consequence of an action on intracellular calcium homeostasis. Expand
3-Iodothyronamine is an endogenous and rapid-acting derivative of thyroid hormone
TLDR
The discovery of 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), a naturally occurring derivative of TH that in vitro is a potent agonist of the G protein–coupled trace amine receptor TAR1, suggests the existence of a new signaling pathway, stimulation of which leads to rapid physiological and behavioral consequences that are opposite those associated with excess TH. Expand
Central effects of thyronamines on glucose metabolism in rats.
TLDR
It is concluded that central administration of low-dose thyronamines suffices to induce the acute alterations in glucoregulatory hormones and glucose metabolism following systemic thyronamine infusion, and can act centrally to modulate glucose metabolism. Expand
Trace amine-associated receptor agonists: synthesis and evaluation of thyronamines and related analogues.
TLDR
A large number of thyroamine derivatives were synthesized in an effort to understand the molecular basis of TAAR1 activation and hypothermia induction in mice, and compound 91 proved to be more potent than T(1)AM for TAAR2 activation and exhibits increased potency and efficacy for hypothermic induction. Expand
Synthesis and biological activity of some triiodinated analogues of thyroxine.
TLDR
It has been considered of importance to prepare additional new analogues of thyroxine in the hope of gaining information about the nature of the cellularly active form of the thyroid hormone and about the minimal structural requirements for activity. Expand
Identification and characterization of 3-iodothyronamine intracellular transport.
TLDR
It is shown that cellular uptake of T(1)AM occurs in multiple cell types and that this process involves specific, saturable, and inhibitable transport mechanisms, which do not involve the likely candidate transporters of other monoamines, organic cations, or thyroid hormones. Expand
Thyronamines are isozyme-specific substrates of deiodinases.
TLDR
A role for deiodinases in thyronamine biosynthesis is supported and these data contribute to confining the biosynthetic pathways for 3-T 1 AM and T 0 AM. Expand
Tissue distribution and cardiac metabolism of 3-iodothyronamine.
TLDR
In H9c2 cardiomyocytes and isolated perfused rat hearts, significant Na+-dependent uptake of exogenous T1AM was observed, and at the steady state total cellular or tissue T1 AM concentration exceeded extracellular concentration by more than 20-fold. Expand
Thyronamines are substrates for human liver sulfotransferases.
TLDR
The results support the conclusion that sulfation contributes to the metabolism of thyronamine in human liver and that SULT activities may regulate the physiological effects of endogenous thyronamines. Expand
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