This paper reviews the state-of-the-art on the management of thyroid cancer in humans, including the following thyroid carcinomas: papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated (insular), undifferentiated (anaplastic), and medullary (sporadic and inherited forms). Also metastatic (secondary) neoplasms of the thyroid gland have been approached. The rules of treatment (surgical, with use of I and suppressive therapy with L-thyroxine) of particular types of thyroid cancers have been presented both descriptively and by schemes. Furthermore, the role of genetic background in the pathogenesis of thyroid neoplasms has carefully been reviewed for papillary, follicular and medullary carcinoma. The paper constitutes a compendium of current views with respect to cytological and histopathological diagnostics of thyroid cancers.