Thymidine kinase: diagnostic and prognostic potential

  title={Thymidine kinase: diagnostic and prognostic potential},
  author={Kim L. O’Neill and Matthew Ross Buckwalter and Byron K. Murray},
  journal={Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics},
  pages={428 - 433}
Thymidine kinase is a cell cycle-dependent marker that can be detected in the serum of patients diagnosed with many different types of cancer. Serum levels of thymidine kinase have also been shown to reflect the progression of cancer as well as an indication of the efficacy of chemotherapeutic intervention. A new monoclonal antibody assay for thymidine kinase has been developed, which is capable of detecting thymidine kinase in both serum and tumor tissue. Thymidine kinase assay kits should be… 

The role of thymidine kinase in cancer diseases.

Determination of thymidine kinase helps to monitor the follow-up of solid tumours and haematological malignancies as well as indicating the efficacy of adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy.

Serum thymidine kinase activity: an alternative to histologic markers of cellular proliferation in canine lymphoma.

  • B. Madewell
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • 2004
Thymidine kinase seems to be a useful marker in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, where it correlates with clinical staging and provides marked prognostic information on (progression-free) survival.

Thymidine kinase 1 as a tumor biomarker: technical advances offer new potential to an old biomarker.

This paper will review TK1 as a tumor biomarker with emphasis on recent studies and technologies plus highlight its potential in drug discovery and as a therapeutic target.

Prognostic importance of thymidine kinase in colorectal and breast cancer.

TK represents a secondary tumor marker which is particularly useful for cancer disease monitoring and Interpretation of this marker must be performed only in association with evaluation of clinical status since all other possible non-specific causes of elevated serum levels must be excluded.

The proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 in clinical use.

Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), a cell cycle-dependent and thus a proliferation-related marker, has been extensively studied during the last decades and is an emerging potential proliferating biomarker in oncology that may be used for the prognosis and monitoring of tumor therapy, relapse and survival.

Thymidine Kinase 1: A Universal Marker for Cancer

TK1 is a good marker for malignancy and is significantly overexpressed in cancers compared to normal controls in lung, colon, prostate, esophagus, stomach, liver, and kidney tissues and may be considered a universal cancer marker.

Diagnostic implications of the molecular forms and levels of serum thymidine kinase 1 in different canine malignancies

Overall, the results demonstrate that TK1 protein assays provide valuable diagnostic information in a variety of canine malignancies.

Molecular properties of serum thymidine kinase 1 and use of the canine enzyme in disease monitoring

Investigating the molecular characteristics of canine thymidine kinase 1 and utilizing several anti-TK1 antibodies to a better understanding its role in disease prognostics, risk assessment, and monitoring of cancer development revealed that serum TK1 activity was elevated in 41% of bitches with pyometra, and thus TK 1 determinations may be clinically valuable also in some non-neoplastic diseases.

Immunohistochemistry for Thymidine Kinase-1 (TK1): A Potential Tool for the Prognostic Stratification of Breast Cancer Patients

Thymidine kinase-1 (TK1), a ubiquitous enzyme involved in the pyrimidine nucleotide recovery pathway, is a cell-proliferation marker with potential prognostic and predictive impacts in BC, suggesting a possible and important role in the stratification of BC patients.

Changes of thymidine kinase (TK) during adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy.

Thymidine kinase seems to be a suitable parameter for monitoring the effect of adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.



Serum thymidine kinase as a marker of disease activity in patients with multiple myeloma.

Detailed multiparameter longitudinal investigations of 5 patients and ongoing studies of 70 other patients suggest that STK is a more reliable marker of progressive disease than either SB2M, LI, M-protein or CD10 positive lymphocytes.

Thymidine kinase 1 immunoassay: a potential marker for breast cancer.

The results demonstrated that the TK1 immunoassay not only had a linear, reproducible, and specific response but accurately measured TK 1 levels in both MCF-7 breast cancer cells and serum.

Serum thymidine kinase as a prognostic marker in Hodgkin's disease.

Significant correlations were found with higher (S-TK) levels in advanced disease as well as in patients with B-symptoms, which makes this serum test interesting as an additional tool in the clinical evaluation and in the therapeutic decision concerning patients with Hodgkin's disease.

Thymidine kinase as a proliferative marker: clinical relevance in 1,692 primary breast cancer patients.

  • P. BroëtS. Romain F. Spyratos
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • 2001
High TK values are an important risk factor in node-negative patients and seem to be associated with a beneficial effect of adjuvant FAC or FEC in patients who received adjUvant chemotherapy.

Clinical Value of Thymidine Kinase in Patients with Cervical Carcinoma

TK may play an important role in influencing the malignant behavior of cervical carcinoma, and measurement of the serum TK level may be useful in predicting survival in patients with cervical carcinomas.

Thymidine kinase and thymidylate synthase in advanced breast cancer: response to tamoxifen and chemotherapy.

For patients with recurrent breast cancer, high tumor TK activity is a significant marker of poor clinical outcome on tamoxifen therapy, and Elevated tumor TS activity predicts a favorable outcome for 5-FU-containing polychemotherapy when applied after tumor progression on endocrine therapy.

Thymidine kinase in breast cancer.

Serum thymidine kinase reflects stage of disease in breast cancer and serial thymazine kinase levels in patients with systemic breast cancer reflected response to systemic therapy.

Can thymidine kinase levels in breast tumors predict disease recurrence?

Higher TK1 levels in tumors in patients who subsequently had disease recurrence almost certainly indicate a high rate of proliferation in such tumors at the time of excision, and TK is a potentially useful marker in the management of breast cancer.

EORTC receptor and biomarker study group report analytical and technical evaluation of a thymidine kinase radio-enzymatic assay in breast cancer cytosols.

Modifications to the serum assay led to an adequate, standardized protocol for analyzing TK activity in breast tumor cytosols, and the manufacturer has changed the cytosol diluent composition and is adding a specific cytOSol assay insert to the Prolifigen TK-REA kit.