Thunderstorm‐related asthma: what happens and why

@article{DAmato2016ThunderstormrelatedAW,
  title={Thunderstorm‐related asthma: what happens and why},
  author={Gennaro D'Amato and Carolina Vitale and Maria D’Amato and Lorenzo Cecchi and Gennaro Liccardi and Antonio Molino and Alessandro Vatrella and Alessandro Sanduzzi and Cara Nichole Maesano and Isabella Annesi-Maesano},
  journal={Clinical \& Experimental Allergy},
  year={2016},
  volume={46},
  pages={390 - 396}
}
The fifth report issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts that greenhouse gases will increase the global temperature as well as the frequency of extreme weather phenomena. An increasing body of evidence shows the occurrence of severe asthma epidemics during thunderstorms in the pollen season, in various geographical zones. The main hypotheses explaining association between thunderstorms and asthma claim that thunderstorms can concentrate pollen grains at ground level… 
How Do Storms Affect Asthma?
TLDR
A key message is that all subjects affected by pollen allergy should be alerted to the danger of being outdoors during a thunderstorm in the pollen season, as such events may be an important cause of severe asthma exacerbations.
Thunderstorm allergy and asthma: state of the art
TLDR
Thunderstorm-triggered asthma (TA) can be defined as the occurrence of acute asthma attacks immediately following a thunderstorm during pollen seasons, a global health problem observed in several cities and areas of the world that can strike without sufficient warning, inducing sometimes severe clinical consequences also with deaths of asthma patients.
Thunderstorms During Pollen Season as Risk Factors for Allergic Respiratory Diseases and Severe Asthma
TLDR
Patients affected by pollen allergy should be informed about a possible risk of asthma attack at the beginning of a thunderstorm during pollen season, because patients suffering from pollen allergy may inhale a high concentration of the allergenic material released by pollen that is dispersed into the atmosphere, which can induce asthmatic reactions that can be severe.
What does climate change mean for people with pollen allergy?
  • M. Shamji, R. Boyle
  • Environmental Science
    Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
  • 2021
TLDR
Whether the increased variability of thunderstorm timing seen with climate change might put wider groups of allergic individuals at risk for severe asthma triggered by SPP is studied to better identify individuals who are likely to be at risk of developing exacerbations during thunderstorm asthma.
Importance of allergen–environment interactions in epidemic thunderstorm asthma
Australia is home to one of the highest rates of allergic rhinitis worldwide. Commonly known as ‘hay fever’, this chronic condition affects up to 30% of the population and is characterised by
Allergens as trigger factors for allergic respiratory diseases and severe asthma during thunderstorms in pollen season
TLDR
There are observations that thunderstorms occurring during pollen season can induce severe asthma attacks in pollinosis patients, and a dramatic event in Melbourne occurred on November 21, 2016, with 10 deaths and 9000 patients who needed medical treatments in Emergency Department of Melbourne Hospital for asthma attacks.
The effects of climate change on respiratory allergy and asthma induced by pollen and mold allergens
TLDR
Studies showed that plants exhibit enhanced photosynthesis and reproductive effects and produce more pollen as a response to high atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and Mold proliferation is increased by floods and rainy storms are responsible for severe asthma.
Climate change, air pollution, and allergic respiratory diseases: an update
TLDR
Until global emissions continue to rise, adaptation to the impacts of future climate variability will also be required, and measures of mitigation need to be applied for reducing future impacts of climate change.
News on Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Allergic Triggers of Asthma.
The rising frequency of obstructive respiratory diseases during recent years, in particular allergic asthma, can be partially explained by changes in the environment, with the increasing presence in
Climate change, air pollution, and allergic respiratory diseases: a call to action for health professionals
TLDR
Since climate change may pose many unexpected and persistent effects on allergic respiratory diseases, health professionals should advocate for effective mitigation and adaptation strategies to minimize its respiratory health effects.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 57 REFERENCES
A trans-disciplinary overview of case reports of thunderstorm-related asthma outbreaks and relapse
TLDR
The purpose of this article is to gather existing trans-disciplinary data on thunderstorm-related asthma attacks and potential relapse in the same patient and to know the mechanisms involved in the release of allergens from airborne pollen grains during thunderstorms and the associated risk in view of prevention.
Thunderstorm‐asthma and pollen allergy
TLDR
There is evidence that under wet conditions or during thunderstorms, pollen grains may, after rupture by osmotic shock, release into the atmosphere part of their content, including respirable, allergen‐carrying cytoplasmic starch granules or other paucimicronic components that can reach lower airways inducing asthma reactions in pollinosis patients.
Thunderstorm associated asthma: a detailed analysis of environmental factors
TLDR
New episodes of asthma during the epidemic on 24 and 25 June 1994 were associated with a fall in air temperature and a rise in grass pollen concentration, which may indicate that the patients with thunderstorm associated asthma were a separate population, sensitive to different environmental stimuli.
Thunderstorm Asthma Due to Grass Pollen
  • C. Suphioglu
  • Environmental Science
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
  • 1998
It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the
Thunderstorm associated asthma in Atlanta, Georgia
Associations between thunderstorm activity and asthma morbidity have been reported in numerous locations around the world.1 The most prominent hypotheses explaining the associations are that pollen
Thunderstorm asthma: an overview of the evidence base and implications for public health advice.
TLDR
It is found that several thunderstorm asthma events have had significant impacts on individuals' health and health services with a range of different aeroallergens identified.
Asthma admissions and thunderstorms: a study of pollen, fungal spores, rainfall, and ozone.
TLDR
There was an independent, positive association between ozone concentrations and asthma admissions, and the effect is more marked in warmer weather, and is not explained by increases in grass pollen, total pollen or fungal spore counts, nor by an interaction between these and rainfall.
Release of allergens as respirable aerosols: A link between grass pollen and asthma.
TLDR
First direct observations of the release of grass pollen allergens as respirable aerosols can emanate directly from the flower after a moisture-drying cycle are provided, which could explain asthmatic responses associated with grass pollination, particularly after moist weather conditions.
Allergens and thunderstorm asthma
TLDR
This review focuses on important advances in the understanding of the mechanism of the role of allergens, in particular fungal spores such as Alternaria, in asthma epidemics associated with thunderstorms.
Changes in concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores during summer storms
TLDR
Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms.
...
...