BACKGROUND Brucellosis, constituting a major health problem in many parts of the world--particularly in the Mediterranean and the Middle East--is a multisystem disease with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Hematological abnormalities ranging from a fulminant state of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy to subtle hemostatic alterations have been reported in brucella infection. Immunemediated thrombocytopenia is also a clinically important mechanism that can be encountered during brucellosis. CASE A young lady with fever was referred to a university hospital because of thrombocytopenia. The provisional diagnosis was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, as the bone marrow examination showed an increased number of megakaryocytes and the absence of fever after hospitalization. The patient responded well to corticosteroid treatment. However, she was finally diagnosed with brucellosis with positive bone marrow and blood cultures for B. abortus and agglutination test of 1:320. The patient was discharged from the hospital 10 days later in good health on rifampicin and doxycycline therapy. The follow-up of the patient revealed normal hematological findings together with a progressive reduction in the titer of the agglutination test for brucella. CONCLUSION Brucella infection may cause severe thrombocytopenia, mimicking a primary hematological disease that is reversible after appropriate antimicrobial therapy. In cases of brucellosis-induced immune thrombocytopenic purpura, a short-term standard dose of corticosteroid treatment might be an alternative and additional treatment as an urgent approach for thrombocytopenia while initiating antibrucellosis treatment.