Three-way coexistence in obligate mutualist-exploiter interactions: the potential role of competition.

Abstract

Many mutualisms host "exploiter" species that consume the benefits provided by one or both mutualists without reciprocating. Exploiters have been widely assumed to destabilize mutualisms, yet they are common. We develop models to explore conditions for local coexistence of obligate plant/pollinating seed parasite mutualisms and nonpollinating exploiters. As… (More)

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Cite this paper

@article{Morris2003ThreewayCI, title={Three-way coexistence in obligate mutualist-exploiter interactions: the potential role of competition.}, author={William F. Morris and Judith L. Bronstein and William G. Wilson}, journal={The American naturalist}, year={2003}, volume={161 6}, pages={860-75} }