Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-R), body mass index (BMI), leptin, adiponectin, and serum lipid profile including triglycerides in nonobese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 88 nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients were studied. The duration of diabetes was 11.0 +/- 0.8 years. In conjunction with BMI, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, serum lipids (triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol), serum leptin, serum adiponectin, serum TNF-alpha, and soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2) were also measured. Insulin resistance was estimated by the insulin resistance index of homeostasis model assessment. Insulin resistance was positively correlated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin, and total cholesterol and negatively correlated with adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast, insulin resistance was not associated with TNF-alpha, nor sTNF-R (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2) in our diabetic patients. There was no significant relationship between the 3 measures of TNF-alpha system (TNF-alpha, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2) and BMI, serum triglycerides, leptin, or adiponectin in these patients. From these results, it can be concluded that peripheral levels of TNF-alpha system activity are not a major factor responsible for insulin resistance in nonobese Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.