Three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the envelopes of young planets embedded in protoplanetary disks

  title={Three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the envelopes of young planets embedded in protoplanetary disks},
  author={Gennaro d'Angelo and Peter H. Bodenheimer},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
We perform global three-dimensional (3D) radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the envelopes surrounding young planetary cores of 5, 10, and 15 Earth masses, located in a protoplanetary disk at 5 and 10 AU from a solar-mass star. We apply a nested-grid technique to resolve the thermodynamics of the disk at the orbital-radius length scale and that of the envelope at the core-radius length scale. The gas is modeled as a solar mixture of molecular and atomic hydrogen, helium, and their ions. The… Expand
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