Characteristics of a New X-Ray Imaging System for Interventional Procedures: Improved Image Quality and Reduced Radiation Dose
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To investigate the response after magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) treatment of uterine fibroids (UF) using a three-dimensional (3D) quantification of total and enhancing lesion volume (TLV and ELV, respectively) on contrast-enhanced MRI (ceMRI) scans. METHODS AND MATERIALS In a total of 24 patients, ceMRI scans were obtained at baseline and 24 hours, and 6, 12, and 24 months after MRgHIFU treatment. The dominant lesion was assessed using a semiautomatic quantitative 3D segmentation technique. Agreement between software-assisted and manual measurements was then analyzed using a linear regression model. Patients were classified as responders (R) or nonresponders (NR) on the basis of their symptom report after 6 months. Statistical analysis included the paired t-test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS Preprocedurally, the median TLV and ELV were 263.74 cm(3) (30.45-689.56 cm(3)) and 210.13 cm(3) (14.43-689.53 cm(3)), respectively. The 6-month follow-up demonstrated a reduction of TLV in 21 patients (87.5%) with a median TLV of 171.7 cm(3) (8.5-791.2 cm(3); P < .0001). TLV remained stable with significant differences compared to baseline (P < .001 and P = .047 after 12 and 24 months). A reduction of ELV was apparent in 16 patients (66.6%) with a median ELV of 158.91 cm(3) (8.55-779.61 cm(3)) after 6 months (P = .065). Three-dimensional quantification and manual measurements showed strong intermethod agreement for fibroid volumes (R(2) = .889 and .917) but greater discrepancy for enhancement calculations (R(2) = .659 and .419) at baseline and 6 months. No significant differences in TLV or ELV were observed between clinical R (n = 15) and NR (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS The 3D assessment has proven feasible and accurate in the quantification of fibroid response to MRgHIFU. Contrary to ELV, changes in TLV may be representative of the clinical outcome.