Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides.

  title={Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides.},
  author={Ewold Verhagen and Ren{\'e} de Waele and Laurens Kobus Kuipers and Albert J Polman},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={105 22},
We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts… CONTINUE READING
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