Three-dimensional integrated circuits

  title={Three-dimensional integrated circuits},
  author={Anna W. Topol and Douglas C. La Tulipe and Leathen Shi and David J. Frank and Kerry Bernstein and Steven E. Steen and Arvind Kumar and Gilbert U. Singco and Albert M. Young and Kathryn W. Guarini and Meikei Ieong},
  journal={IBM J. Res. Dev.},
Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits (ICs), which contain multiple layers of active devices, have the potential to dramatically enhance chip performance, functionality, and device packing density. They also provide for microchip architecture and may facilitate the integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals. However, before these advantages can be realized, key technology challenges of 3D ICs must be addressed. More specifically, the processes required to build circuits… 

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