Three-dimensional imaging of individual hafnium atoms inside a semiconductor device

  title={Three-dimensional imaging of individual hafnium atoms inside a semiconductor device},
  author={K. V. Benthem and A. Lupini and Miyoung Kim and H. Baik and S. Doh and Jong-Ho Lee and M. Oxley and S. Findlay and L. Allen and J. T. Luck and S. Pennycook},
  journal={Applied Physics Letters},
The aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope allows probes to be formed with less than 1-A diameter, providing sufficient sensitivity to observe individual Hf atoms within the SiO2 passivating layer of a HfO2∕SiO2∕Si alternative gate dielectric stack. Furthermore, the depth resolution is sufficient to localize the atom positions to half-nanometer precision in the third dimension. From a through-focal series of images, we demonstrate a three-dimensional reconstruction of… Expand

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