Three-dimensional echocardiography in the diagnosis of pacemaker lead perforation.

  title={Three-dimensional echocardiography in the diagnosis of pacemaker lead perforation.},
  author={Akinori Sugano and Youngseon Seo and Akiko Atsumi and Masayoshi Yamamoto and Tomoko Machino-Ohtuska and Ryo Kawamura and Hideki Nakajima and Tomoko Ishizu and Kazutaka Aonuma},
  journal={Journal of echocardiography},
  volume={10 4},
Recently, due to increases in the number of cardiac device implantations, especially implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy, device complications have been experienced more frequently. Myocardial perforation of an implanted lead is one of the most severe complications. We report a case of ventricular lead perforation clearly visualized by 3-dimensional echocardiography, which was not identified by 2-dimensional echocardiography. 

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