Three-dimensional brain atlas of pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus, revealing the largest relative vertical lobe system volume among the cephalopods.

Abstract

Cephalopods have the largest and most complex nervous system of all invertebrates, and the brain-to-body weight ratio exceeds those of most fish and reptiles. The brain is composed of lobe units, the functions of which have been studied through surgical manipulation and electrical stimulation. However, how information is processed in each lobe for the animal to make a behavioral decision has rarely been investigated. To perform such functional analyses, it is necessary to precisely describe how brain lobes are spatially organized and mutually interconnected as a whole. We thus made three-dimensional digital brain atlases of both hatchling and juvenile pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus. I. paradoxus is the smallest squid and has a brain small enough to scan as a whole region in the field-of-view of a low-magnification laser scan microscope objective. Precise analyses of the confocal images of the brains revealed one newly identified lobe and also that the relative volume of the vertical lobe system, the higher association center, in the pygmy squid represents the largest portion compared with the cephalopod species reported previously. In addition, principal component analyses of relative volumes of lobe complexes revealed that the organization of I. paradoxus brain is comparable to those of Decapodiformes species commonly used to analyze complex behaviors such as Sepia officinalis and Sepioteuthis sepioidea. These results suggest that the pygmy squid can be a good model to investigate the brain functions of coleoids utilizing physiological methods. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2142-2157, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

DOI: 10.1002/cne.23939

Cite this paper

@article{Koizumi2016ThreedimensionalBA, title={Three-dimensional brain atlas of pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus, revealing the largest relative vertical lobe system volume among the cephalopods.}, author={Motoki Koizumi and Shuichi Shigeno and Makoto Mizunami and Nobuaki K Tanaka}, journal={The Journal of comparative neurology}, year={2016}, volume={524 10}, pages={2142-57} }