Three-Dimensional Visualization of Subdural Electrodes for Presurgical Planning

  title={Three-Dimensional Visualization of Subdural Electrodes for Presurgical Planning},
  author={Peter S. LaViolette and S D Rand and Manoj Raghavan and Benjamin M. Ellingson and Kathleen M. Schmainda and W.M. Mueller},
  journal={Operative Neurosurgery},
BACKGROUND: Accurate localization and visualization of subdural electrodes implanted for intracranial electroencephalography in cases of medically refractory epilepsy remains a challenging clinical problem. OBJECTIVE: We introduce a technique for creating accurate 3-dimensional (3D) brain models with electrode overlays, ideal for resective surgical planning. METHODS: Our procedure uses postimplantation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging to create 3D models of… 

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