Thoracoscopy in malignant pleural effusions.

Abstract

In a consecutive series of 1,000 patients admitted since 1970 for pleural effusions, 215 with undiagnosed chronic effusions (with previous negative cytologic and needle biopsy results) underwent thoracoscopy. The investigation was usually performed under general anesthesia, originally with a 9-mm diameter cold light laparoscope, but, since 1978, with a 7-mm… (More)

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