Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in humans. The majority of patients with AF can function reasonably well on a daily basis with anti-arrhythmic drugs. A small proportion of patients with AF remain symptomatic despite anti-arrhythmic drugs. They might have an indication for invasive treatment for AF, such as endovascular catheter ablation (effective particularly in paroxysmal AF) or the Cox-Maze procedure (open heart surgery), in which the conductivity between the pulmonary veins and the left atrium is blocked. Hybrid thoracoscopic pulmonary vein isolation (VATS-PVI) is a new minimally invasive treatment for AF where the cardiothoracic surgeon and cardiologist work closely together. During this procedure the cardiologist performs electrophysiological measurements to verify whether the blockade of conductivity is successful. This approach has a success rate of 86% at a follow-up of 12 months.