# Third quantization of the electromagnetic field

@article{Franson2021ThirdQO, title={Third quantization of the electromagnetic field}, author={James D. Franson}, journal={Physical Review A}, year={2021} }

electromagnetic field is already second quantized, this corresponds to an additional or third quantization. The third-quantization approach can be used to perform certain quantum optics calculations in the Heisenberg picture that could only be performed in the Schrodinger picture when using the conventional secondquantized theory. This approach also allows an interesting generalization of quantum optics and quantum electrodynamics that is analogous to symmetry breaking in elementary particle…

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