Thiotrophic bacterial symbiont induces polyphenism in giant ciliate host Zoothamnium niveum

@article{Bright2019ThiotrophicBS,
  title={Thiotrophic bacterial symbiont induces polyphenism in giant ciliate host Zoothamnium niveum},
  author={Monika Bright and Salvador Espada-Hinojosa and Jean-Marie Volland and Judith Drexel and Julie R Kesting and Ingrid Kolar and Denny Morchner and Andrea D. Nussbaumer and J{\"o}rg A. Ott and Florian Scharhauser and Lukas Schuster and Helena Constance Zambalos and Hans L. Nemeschkal},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
  year={2019},
  volume={9}
}
Evolutionary theory predicts potential shifts between cooperative and uncooperative behaviour under fluctuating environmental conditions. This leads to unstable benefits to the partners and restricts the evolution of dependence. High dependence is usually found in those hosts in which vertically transmitted symbionts provide nutrients reliably. Here we study host dependence in the marine, giant colonial ciliate Zoothamnium niveum and its vertically transmitted, nutritional, thiotrophic symbiont… 
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