Thinking about Choking? Attentional Processes and Paradoxical Performance

  title={Thinking about Choking? Attentional Processes and Paradoxical Performance},
  author={Brian P. Lewis and Darwyn E. Linder},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={937 - 944}
  • B. P. Lewis, D. Linder
  • Published 1 September 1997
  • Psychology
  • Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
When pressure to perform is increased, individuals commonly perform worse than if there were no pressure ("choking under pressure'). Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this effect-distraction (cognitive load), wherein pressure distracts attention from the task, and self focus, wherein attention shifts inward interfering with performance. To distinguish between these two competing explanations, the current experiment manipulated pressure by offering performance-contingent rewards… 

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  • R. Baumeister
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    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1984
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