The discovery of a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs was stimulated by difficulties with the treatment currently available for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones can lower blood glucose values due to their special insulin-sensitiser effect. In this way, these drugs seem to be very effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. The intracellular action caused by thiazolidinediones differs markedly from that of other oral antidiabetic drugs available. Apart from antihyperglycaemic effect, thiazolidinediones have further beneficial effects in experimental diabetes which require corroboration by clinical studies. Troglitazone was the first drug which reached the market. Unfortunately, this drug was withdrawn soon due to its hepatotoxicity. Rosiglitazone proved to be much safer in clinical studies. Pioglitazone is being tested nowadays in clinical studies. Thiazolidinediones have been already listed among oral antidiabetic drugs in international therapeutical guidelines. Nevertheless, further clinical studies and experiences are needed to determine the final exact indication of thiazolidinediones for the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients.