Thermophysiology of Tyrannosaurus rex: Evidence from Oxygen Isotopes

@article{Barrick1994ThermophysiologyOT,
  title={Thermophysiology of Tyrannosaurus rex: Evidence from Oxygen Isotopes},
  author={Reese E. Barrick and William J. Showers},
  journal={Science},
  year={1994},
  volume={265},
  pages={222 - 224}
}
The oxygen isotopic composition of vertebrate bone phosphate (δp) is related to ingested water and to the body temperature at which the bone forms. The δp is in equilibrium with the individual's body water, which is at a physiological steady state throughout the body. Therefore, intrabone temperature variation and the mean interbone temperature differences of well-preserved fossil vertebrates can be determined from the δp variation. Values of δp from a well-preserved Tyrannosaurus rex suggest… 
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Oxygen isotope ratios of fossil remains of coexisting taxa from several different localities can be used to help investigate dinosaur thermoregulation, and inferred homoethermy in theropods is likely due to higher rates of metabolic heat production relative to crocodiles.
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Comparisons of the isotopic patterns are used as a basis for a preliminary discussion of the biology of these large theropod and support the interpretation that both theropods support homeothermy by means of intermediate metabolic rates.
Paleoaltimetry from Stable Isotope Compositions of Fossils
Stable isotope systematics of phosphatic (vertebrate) and carbonate (invertebrate) fossils are reviewed, emphasizing external vs. biological controls on isotope compositions and their variation.
Intra-skeletal variability in phosphate oxygen isotope composition reveals regional heterothermies in marine vertebrates
Abstract. Strategies used by marine vertebrates to regulate their body temperature can result in local variations, and the knowledge of these regional heterothermies is crucial for better
Body temperatures of modern and extinct vertebrates from 13C-18O bond abundances in bioapatite
TLDR
It is shown that the abundance of 13C-18O bonds in the carbonate component of tooth bioapatite from modern specimens decreases with increasing body temperature of the animal, following a relationship between isotope “clumping” and temperature that is statistically indistinguishable from inorganic calcite.
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