Thermolysis of fluoropolymers as a potential source of halogenated organic acids in the environment

  title={Thermolysis of fluoropolymers as a potential source of halogenated organic acids in the environment},
  author={David A. Ellis and Scott A. Mabury and Jonathan W. Martin and Derek C. G. Muir},
Following the introduction of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) gases as replacements for the ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), it has been discovered that HCFCs/HFCs can degrade in the atmosphere to produce trifluoroacetic acid, a compound with no known loss mechanisms in the environment, and higher concentrations in natural waters have been shown to be mildly phytotoxic. Present environmental levels of trifluooracetic acid are not accounted by HCFC/HFC… 
Thermal degradation of haloacetic acids in water
Haloacetic acids are commonly found in most natural waters. These are known as degradation products of some halogenated compounds such as C2- chlorocarbons and CFC replacement compounds:
Atmospheric perfluorinated acid precursors: chemistry, occurrence, and impacts.
  • C. Young, S. Mabury
  • Chemistry
    Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology
  • 2010
It is clear that atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors contributes to the overall burden of PFAs, though the extent to which this occurs is compound and environment dependent and is difficult to assess accurately.
Fate of Volatile Fluorinated Compounds in the Subsurface
Since their discovery around 1930, the synthetic compounds of the class of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been produced and used worldwide at very large scale. Their physico-chemical properties
Hydrolysis and Atmospheric Oxidation Reactions of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acid Precursors
This dissertation explores a number of different environmentally relevant reactions that lead to the production of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), a family of environmental pollutants that does
Influence of calcium hydroxide on the fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate under thermal conditions.
Treatment technologies for aqueous perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)
Fluorochemicals (FCs) are oxidatively recalcitrant, environmentally persistent, and resistant to most conventional treatment technologies. FCs have unique physiochemical properties derived from
Modeling the hydrolysis of perfluorinated compounds containing carboxylic and phosphoric acid ester functions and sulfonamide groups
  • S. Rayne, K. Forest
  • Chemistry
    Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
  • 2010
Temperature-dependent rate constants were estimated for the acid- and base-catalyzed and neutral hydrolysis reactions of perfluorinated telomer acrylates (FTAcrs) and phosphate esters (FTPEs), and
Characterization of the thermolysis products of Nafion membrane: A potential source of perfluorinated compounds in the environment
The thermal decomposition of Nafion N117 membrane, a typical perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is widely used in various chemical technologies, was investigated and a thermolysis mechanism was proposed involving cleavage of both the polymer backbone and its side chains by attack of radical species.
Halocarbenes May Deplete Atmospheric Ozone
Photooxidation of tetrachloroethylene (PERC) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in simulated tropospheric smog chamber studies occurs with a time delay, accelerating simultaneous decreasing O3/chlorinated


Trifluoroacetate in the environment evidence for sources other than HFC/HCFCs
The partly halogenated C2-hydro(chloro)fluorocarbons (HFC, HCFC) 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-123), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-2-chloroethane (HCFC-124), and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a)
The Aqueous Photolysis of TFM and Related Trifluoromethylphenols. An Alternate Source of Trifluoroacetic Acid in the Environment
The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is added annually to the Great Lakes (approximately 50 000 kg/y), with treatment concentrations varying from 1 to 14 mg/L at source. TFM was shown
Accumulation of trifluoroacetate in seasonal wetlands in California.
It is demonstrated that seasonal wetlands lacking outflow concentrated TFA as they evaporated during the dry season, and the TFA within the pools was retained between years, which may result in long-term TFA accumulation.
Concentrations and Mass Fluxes of Chloroacetic Acids and Trifluoroacetic Acid in Rain and Natural Waters in Switzerland
Chloroacetic acids (CAAs) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) are widely distributed environmental pollutants. The origin of CAAs is still under debate, while TFA is considered to be a major atmospheric
Detection of Chlorodifluoroacetic Acid in Precipitation: A Possible Product of Fluorocarbon Degradation
Chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA) was detected in rain and snow samples from various regions of Canada. Routine quantitative analysis was performed using an in-situ derivatization technique that
Atmospheric Lifetimes of Long-Lived Halogenated Species
The atmospheric lifetimes of the fluorinated gases CF4, C2F6, c-C4F8, (CF3)2c-C4F6, C5F12, C6F14, C2F5Cl, C2F4C12, CF3Cl, and SF6 are of concern because of the effects that these long-lived compounds
The atmospheric degradation and impact of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (hydrofluorocarbon 134a)
Shock Tube Study of the Oxidation of C3F6 by N2O
The kinetics of the high-temperature oxidation of C3F6 by O(3P) have been studied by experiment, using a single-pulse shock tube, and by kinetic modeling. The O atoms were generated by the thermal
Toxicity of trifluoroacetate to aquatic organisms
A TFA concentration of 0.10 mg/L is considered safe for the aquatic ecosystem and algal toxicity tests with NaTFA should be considered algistatic and not algicidic for S. capricornutum.